Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research | Journal of Plant Protection Research |

Abstract

Between 2004 and 2017, multiple studies on the herbicide resistance of weeds were conducted by the Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute in Poland. Weed seeds, collected from fields located in various regions of Poland where herbicide use was ineffective, were used in studies conducted under greenhouse conditions. A total of 261 loose silky bent (Apera spica-venti L.) samples were found to be herbicide resistant, which translates to 52.4% of the fields under study. Nearly 50% of the analyzed samples exhibited resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides. Resistance to acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors was found in 18 fields, whereas resistance to photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors (isoproturon) was found in 12 fields. Herbicide resistance of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) occurred in 26 of the fields under study. In addition, resistance of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) to acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitors occurred in 10 spring cereal crops. In the case of winter wheat, resistance of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) to tribenuron-methyl occurred in 23 fields. Scentless chamomile (Matricaria inodora L.) and field poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) were resistant to tribenuron-methyl in four and three fields, respectively, of winter wheat. In the case of sugar beet, three biotypes of fat hen (Chenopodium album L.) and two biotypes of redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) were resistant to metamitron. Horseweed (Conyza canadensis L.), which grows on railway tracks, exhibited resistance to glyphosate. This paper reviews all studies conducted in Poland on weed resistance. Based on the results, maps of weed resistance in Poland were created.

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Abstract

This study investigates the acaricidal, ovicidal, and repellent effects of the Tagetes patula Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf extract against both the adult female and egg stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. The Tagetes patula ethanolic leaf extract [TpEtOH70%] was screened for adulticide and ovicide bioassays in order to consider its acute toxicity. One sublethal concentration was used to assess egg-laying capacity (fecundity), repellent, and oviposition deterrent activities. The chemical characterization was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to identify the TpEtOH70% bioactive components. Results showed that the LC50 value of TpEtOH70% leaf extract predicted by Probit analysis against T. urticae adult females at 24 h was 0.99%. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract showed a significant toxic effect as the highest mean mortality rates (± SE) of the treated adult females was 88.9 ± 3.7%. However, the TpEtOH70% leaf extract was insignificant in affecting the egg-laying capacity of the adult females treated with a sublethal dose of 0.5% even after 72 h. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract was classified repellent since the repellent index (RI) value was lower than 1 – SD. In addition, it had a high oviposition deterring effect based on a 100% reduction of the total number of eggs. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract had a significant ovicidal effect on T. urticae eggs, with 56.04% reduction in hatching. Five bioactive compounds from various classes of phytochemicals were identified in the TpEtOH70% leaf extract and the major compound was phytol (62.72%). This pioneering investigation reveals the adulticidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of the TpEtOH70% leaf extract against T. urticae. A combination of multiple modes of action of different plant components may act alone or in synergism to delay the development of mite resistance.

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Abstract

The chemical composition of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) essential oils as well as their phytotoxic effects against two invasive species – Cortaderia selloana and Nicotiana glauca – were studied. Fifty-eight compounds accounting for 98.89–99.94% of the total commercial tea tree and wintergreen essential oils were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Tea tree essential oil with terpinen- 4-ol (28.37 ± 0.05%) followed by 1,8-cineole (15.81 ± 0.06%), γ-terpinene (15.60 ± 0.03%), α-pinene (10.92 ± 0.08%) and α-terpinene (8.52 ± 0.01%) as the main compounds did not produce significant effects against seed germination and hypocotyl growth of N. glauca, but showed significant effects in seed germination inhibition of C. selloana (34.69%) as well as in hypocotyl (60.96%) and radicle (62.55%) growth, at the highest dose (1 μl ⋅ ml–1) assayed. High amounts of methyl salicylate (99.63 ± 0.02%) were found in G. procumbens essential oil with remarkable phytotoxic effects in C. seollana. Methyl salicylate inhibited seed germination (77.38%) and hypocotyl and radicle growth (96.38% and 96.65%, respectively) at the highest dose (1 μl ⋅ ml–1) assayed. Wintergreen essential oil constitutes an eco-friendly alternative to control the high capacity of invasiveness of C. selloana.

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Abstract

Allelopathy is a complex phenomenon which depends on allelochemical concentrations. So, two pot experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of alcoholic fresh shoot extract of Eruca sativa (foliar spray) and E. sativa shoot powder (mixed with soil) on Pisum sativum plants and two associated weeds, Phalaris minor and Beta vulgaris. The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt during two successive winter seasons (2016–2017 and 2017–2018). Ten treatments were applied in this study. Four treatments were applied before sowing, that E. sativa shoot powder was mixed with the soil at rates of 15, 30, 45 and 60 g ⋅ pot–1. The other four treatments of E. sativa alcoholic fresh shoot extract were sprayed twice on both plants and weeds at 5, 10, 15 and 20% (w/v) concentrations. Additionally, two untreated treatments, healthy (P. sativum only) and unweeded (untreated infested P. sativum plants with weeds) were applied for comparison. The results indicated that both alcoholic extracts and powder reduced growth of both weeds. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between concentration and weed reduction. Eruca sativa alcoholic extracts increased yield parameters of P. sativum plants. The maximum yield attributes were recorded by spraying of E. sativa alcoholic extract at 20%. On the other hand, it was clearly noticed that the high powder rates affected negatively P. sativum yield parameters. But the lowest powder rate (15 g ⋅ pot–1) stimulated P. sativum yield parameters as compared to unweeded treatment. Chemical analysis of E. sativa shoot powder ensured that the abundant amount of glucosinolates (9.6 μmol ⋅ g–1) and phenolic compounds (46.5 mg ⋅ g–1) may be responsible for its allelopathic effect. In conclusion, spraying of alcoholic fresh shoot extract of E. sativa at 20% (w/v) and mixing E. sativa shoot powder at 15 g · pot–1can be applied as natural bioherbicides for controlling weeds.

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Abstract

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV; family Bromoviridae, genus Cucumovirus) is the most cosmopolitan plant virus occurring worldwide. In the present study, leaf samples showing deformations, mosaics, and chlorotic spots symptoms were collected from naturally infected Basella alba, Telfairia occidentalis and Talinum fruticosum in a home yard garden in Ibadan, Nigeria. Total nucleic acid was extracted from leaves and used as template for cDNA synthesis. RT-PCR was carried out using CMV-specific primers targeting RNA-1 segment. Samples were also tested by RT-PCR using Potyvirus and Begomovirus genusspecific primers. DNA fragments with the expected sizes of ~500 bp were amplified by using CMV-specific primers; however, the expected amplicons were not produced using specific primers used for the detection of potyviruses and begomoviruses. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences obtained for the isolates studied contained 503–511 nt and 144 aa, respectively. The isolates shared 81.9–85.3% nucleotide and 74.3–77.8% amino acid sequence identities with each other. The results of BLASTN analyses showed the highest identities of the isolates (80–93%) with CMV strains from Japan, USA and South Korea. Alignment of deduced partial protein revealed multiple amino acid substitutions within the three isolates and high identities with CMV subgroup I. Phylogenetic analyses putatively categorized the isolates in close association with subgroup IB isolates. The three isolates clustered together into a separate subclade, indicating possible new CMV strains. The results provide the first molecular evidence for CMV infections of T. fruticosum and B. alba in Nigeria and seem to show the possible presence of new strain(s). These findings also add three new hosts to the list of natural host range of the virus in Nigeria.

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Abstract

Three transgenic soybean lines expressing the Cry1Ia5 gene were developed using the Agrobacterium transformation system. The integration of the Cry1Ia5 gene in the genome of the transgenic plants was approved using specific primers for PCR and real time PCR analysis, respectively. The insecticidal activity of three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) against 2nd larval instars Spodoptera littoralis was tested. The data indicate that L2 exhibited the highest mortality percentage 9 days post feeding (60%) followed by L3 (40%) then L1 (20%) while the control showed 0% mortality. The larvae fed transgenic material appeared smaller in size than compared to the control larvae. The reduction in insect size and weight was due to the accumulation of higher phenoloxidase activity in insect tissues. The higher mortality observed in L2 was due to a significant decrease in the acetylcholine esterase activity that leads to accumulation of acetylcholin at higher levels which causes paralysis and death. The developed transgenic line 2 could be used to construct an insect resistant soybean cultivar.

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Abstract

The effects of a microbial inoculant (Thervelics®: a mixture of cells of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 and carrier materials) on rice (Oryza sativa cv. Milkyprincess) and barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Sachiho Golden) were evaluated in four pot experiments. In the first and second experiments, the dry matter production of rice and barley increased significantly by 10–20% with the inoculation of the mixture at a rate of 107 cfu ⋅ g–1 soil compared with the non-inoculated control. In the third experiment, the growth promoting effects of the mixture, the autoclaved mixture and the carrier materials were compared. The dry mater production of rice grains was the highest in the mixture, and it was significantly higher in the three treatments than in the control, suggesting that the carrier materials may also have a plant growth promoting effect and the living cells might have an additional stimulatory effect. To confirm the efficacy of the living cells in the mixture, only B. subtilis C-3102 cells were used in the fourth experiment. In addition, to estimate the mechanisms in growth promotion by B. subtilis C-3102, three B. subtilis strains with similar or different properties in the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), protease and siderophore and phosphatesolubilizing ability were used as reference strains. Only B. subtilis C-3102 significantly increased the dry matter production of rice grains and the soil protease activity was consistently higher in the soil inoculated with B. subtilis C-3102 throughout the growing period. These results indicate that the microbial inoculant including live B. subtilis C-3102 may have growth promoting effects on rice and barley.

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Abstract

Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by Fusarium culmorum (Wm.G.Sm) Sacc., is an important disease of wheat both in Iraq and other regions of wheat production worldwide. Changes in environmental conditions and cultural practices such as crop rotation generate stress on pathogen populations leading to the evolution of new strains that can tolerate more stressful environments. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity among isolates of F. culmorum in Iraq. Twenty-nine samples were collected from different regions of wheat cultivation in Iraq to investigate the pathogenicity and genetic diversity of F. culmorum using the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-PCR) technique. Among the 29 isolates of F. culmorum examined for pathogenicity, 96% were pathogenic to wheat at the seedling stage. The most aggressive isolate, from Baghdad, was IF 0021 at 0.890 on the FCR severity index. Three primer sets were used to assess the genotypic diversity via REP, ERIC and BOX elements. The amplicon sizes ranged from 200–800 bp for BOX-ERIC2, 110–1100 bp for ERIC-ERIC2 and 200–1300 bp for REP. A total of 410 markers were polymorphic, including 106 for BOX, 175 for ERIC and 129 for the REP. Genetic similarity was calculated by comparing markers according to minimum variance (Squared Euclidean). Clustering analysis generated two major groups, group 1 with two subgroups 1a and 1b with 5 and 12 isolates, respectively, and group 2 with two subgroups 2a and 2b with 3 and 9 isolates, respectively. This is the first study in this field that has been reported in Iraq.

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Abstract

Hass avocado cultivation in Colombia has grown rapidly in area in recent years. It is being planted in marginal areas, which leads to low yields, and in many cases is related to diseases. Ecological niche modeling (ENM) can offer a view of the potential geographic and environmental distribution of diseases, and thus identify areas with suitable or unsuitable conditions for their development. The aim of the study was to assess current and potential distribution of the major diseases on Hass avocado in Colombia. Areas planted with Hass avocado in Antioquia, Colombia were sampled for diseases including the following pathogens: Phytophthora cinnamomi, Verticillium sp., Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Phytophthora palmivora, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato, Pestalotia sp., and Capnodium sp., and one disorder hypoxia-anoxia. These pathogens were selected based on their relevance (incidence-severity) and capacity to cause damage in different tissues of avocado plants. Severity and incidence of each disease were related to environmental information from vegetation indices and topographic variables using maximum entropy modeling approaches (MaxEnt). Models were calibrated only across areas sampled, and then transferred more broadly to areas currently planted, and to potential zones for planting. Combinations of best performance and low omission rates were the basis for model selection. Results show that Hass avocado has been planted in areas highly conducive for many pathogens, particularly for Phytophthora cinnamomi and hypoxia-anoxia disorder. Ecological niche modeling approaches offer an alternative toolset for planning and making assessments that can be incorporated into disease management plans.

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Abstract

Development and demography of Adalia decempunctata L. were studied under laboratory conditions at seven constant temperatures (12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36°C). First instar larvae failed to develop to second instar at 12°С and no development occurred at 36°C. The total developmental time varied from 47.92 days at 16°C to 15.94 days at 28°C and increased at 32°C. The lower temperature thresholds of 11.05 and 9.90°C, and thermal constants of 290.84 day-degree and 326.34 day-degree were estimated by traditional and Ikemoto-Takai linear models, respectively. The lower temperature threshold (Tmin) values estimated by Analytis, Briere-1, Briere-2 and Lactin-2 for total immature stages were 11.99, 12.24, 10.30 and 10.8°C, respectively. The estimated fastest developmental temperatures (Tfast) by the Analytis, Briere-1, Briere-2 and Lactin-2 for overall immature stages development of A. decempunctata were 31.5, 31.1, 30.7 and 31.7°C, respectively. Analytis, Briere-1, Briere-2 and Lactin-2 measured the upper temperature threshold (Tmax) at 33.14, 36.65, 32.75 and 32.61°C. The age-stage specific survival rate (sxj) curves clearly depicted the highest and lowest survival rates at 16 and 32°C for males and females. The age-specific fecundity (mx) curves revealed higher fecundity rate when fed A. gossypii at 24 and 28°C. The highest and lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase (r) were observed at 28 and 16°C (0.1945 d–1 and 0.0592 d–1, respectively). Also, the trend of changes in the finite rate of increase (λ) was analogous with intrinsic rate of increase. The longest and shortest mean generation time (T) was observed at 16 and 28°C, respectively and the highest net reproductive rates (R0) was estimated at 24 and 28°C. According to the results, the most suitable temperature seems to be 28°C due to the shortest developmental time, highest survival rate, and highest intrinsic rate of increase.

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Abstract

Spectroscopy has become one of the most used non-invasive methods to detect plant diseases before symptoms are visible. In this study it was possible to characterize the spectral variation in leaves of Solanum lycopersicum L. infected with Fusarium oxysporum during the incubation period. It was also possible to identify the relevant specific wavelengths in the range of 380–1000 nm that can be used as spectral signatures for the detection and discrimination of vascular wilt in S. lycopersicum. It was observed that inoculated tomato plants increased their reflectance in the visible range (Vis) and decreased slowly in the near infrared range (NIR) measured during incubation, showing marked differences with plants subjected to water stress in the Vis/NIR. Additionally, three ranges were found in the spectrum related to infection by F. oxysporum (510–520 nm, 650–670 nm, 700–750 nm). Linear discriminant models on spectral reflectance data were able to differentiate between tomato varieties inoculated with F. oxysporum from healthy ones with accuracies higher than 70% 9 days after inoculation. The results showed the potential of reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate plants inoculated with F. oxysporum from healthy ones as well as those subjected to water stress in the incubation period of the disease.

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Abstract

Clethodim herbicide (Cle) and three Trichoderma strains (Tri) were applied either alone or in combination (Cle + Tri) for controlling weeds, root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria) and Rhizoctonia root rot disease (Rhizoctonia solani) as well as for evaluating their effects on total microbial count in the rhizosphere and the number of Rhizobium nodules on roots in two faba bean cultivars cultivated in naturally heavily infested fields. The evaluated characters were very similar for the two tested cultivars (Nubariya 1 and Sakha 3). Treatment with Cle alone highly reduced the fresh and dry matter of tested weeds (Amaranthus viridis, Cynodon dactylon and Cenchrus ciliaris), followed by Cle + Tri and Tri alone. Cle + Tri highly reduced nematode parameters viz. numbers of J2 in soil or roots, females, eggs, galls and egg-masses when compared with each treatment alone. Tri alone caused a great decrease in Rhizoctonia root rot infection, followed by Cle + Tri and Cle alone. Total microbial count and Rhizobium nodules were affected only with Cle treatment. Plant growth parameters (shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight and numbers of branches and leaves) and yield parameters (fresh pod and dry weight, seed number per pod, seed weight and ash pod weight of plant) were greatly improved for Cle + Tri treatments when compared with either Tri or Cle alone.

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Abstract

The objective of this work was to generate a series of equations to describe the voltinism of Lobesia botrana in the quarantine area of the main winemaking area of Argentina, Mendoza. To do this we considered an average climate scenario and extrapolated these equations to other winegrowing areas at risk of being invaded. A grid of 4 km2 was used to generate statistics on L. botrana captures and the mean temperature accumulation for the pixel. Four sets of logistic regression were constructed using the percentage of accumulated trap catches/grid/week and the degree-day accumulation above 7°C, from 1st July. By means of a habitat model, an extrapolation of the phenological model generated to other Argentine winemaking areas was evaluated. According to our results, it can be expected that 50% of male adult emergence for the first flight occurs at 248.79 ± 4 degree-days (DD), in the second flight at 860.18 ± 4.1 DD, while in the third and the fourth flights, 1671.34 ± 5.8 DD and 2335.64 ± 4.3 DD, respectively. Subsequent climatic comparison determined that climatic conditions of uncolonized areas of Cuyo Region have a similar suitability index to the quarantine area used to adjust the phenological model. The upper valley of Río Negro and Neuquén are environmentally similar. Valleys of the northwestern region of Argentina showed lower average suitability index and greater variability among SI estimated by the algorithm considered. The combination of two models for the estimation of adult emergence time and potential distribution, can provide greater certainties in decision-making and risk assessment of invasive species.

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Abstract

This weed management investigation was carried out at the Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), Bangalore, during the summers of 2017 and 2018 to standardize agrotechniques for weed management of rice grown under aerobic conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with eleven treatments replicated thrice. It consisted of two pre-emergence herbicides and one early post-emergence herbicide, the stale seedbed technique, mulching, hand weeding and intercultivation which was compared to the weedy check. The results showed that pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10% wettable powder (WP) at 35 active ingredient (a.i.) g ⋅ ha–1 as PE fb bispyribac sodium 10% SC at 30 ml ⋅ ha–1 a.i. as an early post-emergence herbicide performed better in terms of rice grain and straw yield (5,800 and 9,786 kg ⋅ ha–1, respectively), plant height (58.42 cm), rice total dry matter production (149.84 g ⋅ plant–1), productive tillers ⋅ hill–1 (40.32), panicle length (24.53 cm), 1000 grain weight (25.35 g), net returns (Rs. 62424), higher B : C ratio (2.59) and lower total weed density, weed dry weight at different stages of rice and weed index (3.80%) as well as higher weed control efficiency (90.52%). This practice could be recommended to farmers growing aerobic rice under these climatic conditions.

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Abstract

The current research aimed to use non traditional methods to control some stored grain insects. The effects of 180 millitesla (mT) magnetic field (MF) for six different exposure periods (3 min, 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h) on mortality (%) of two stored grain insects, Tribolium casteneum adults and Trogoderma granarium larvae, reduction in F1-progeny (%), seeds germination (%) and seed components (%) after 8 months storage period were studied under laboratory conditions. According to results, the mortality (%) of tested insects increased with increasing of MF time exposure. Trogoderma granarium was more resistant than T. casteneum in which mortality reached 56 and 75%, respectively 14 days after from exposure period. Without any negative effect on seeds germination (%) the MF was very effective in protecting stored wheat from insect infestation up to 8 months compared to non-magnetic seeds which became infested after 3 months of storage. Furthermore, the germination (%) was accelerated by 6 h compared to non-magnetic seeds. The MF level caused a slight increase in the percent of total carbohydrate, crude protein and ash while slightly decrease the percent of moisture, total fats and crude fiber.

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Abstract

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important diseases that occurs in cereal regions worldwide and causes serious economic damage. This disease can be caused by several Fusarium species with Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto being the most common pathogen isolated from several crops. The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of F. graminearum sensu stricto on rye grains collected from field samples in Argentina and to determine the potential ability to produce deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEA). Based on morphological characteristics, the isolate was identified as F. graminearum sensu stricto. To confirm molecularly, portions of the RED and TRI genes were sequenced and showed 99% similarity with the F. graminearum sensu stricto sequences available in the NCBI database. The potential to produce DON, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and ZEA was determined. Moreover, Koch´s postulates were carried out. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. graminearum sensu stricto associated with rye kernels in Argentina.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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