Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2022 | vol. 62 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The fumigant pesticide methyl bromide (MB) is no longer used in most countries due to its carcinogenic effects. It is followed by carbon bisulfide and chloropicrin which are the most effective liquid synthetic chemicals in pesticide formulations. They are converted to gas to penetrate soil particles and eliminate plant pests such as insects, weeds, and causal plant diseases of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes under greenhouse, field and storage conditions. These fumigants are non specific pesticides and highly hazardous to humans, environmental resources, and deplete the ozone layers. Furthermore, increasing the cost of crop production by inceasing the amount of pesticides treatments was increased the cost of research on the alternatives of green pesticides from eco-friendly agents, natural organic soil amendments of organic wastes, green manure, biofumigation crops, compost, and essential oils, as well as formulations, are examples of this. Organic fumigants that are non toxic, non-residual, highly degradable and decomposable are available as eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides to manage soil borne pests and diseases of plants. This article summarizes the development of applicable eco-friendly formulations which use natural organic materials to disinfest soil in order to reduce plant diseases caused by soil- -borne pathogens.
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Authors and Affiliations

El-Sayed Hussein Ziedan
1

  1. Plant Pathology Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt
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Abstract

Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda) (FAW) is an important invasive pest of maize. The young FAW larva disrupts the photosynthetic system by feeding on the leaves. The older caterpillar interferes with pollination and fertilization processes, destroying the tassel and silks, or it bores into the maize cob, reducing harvest quality and predisposing the cob to secondary infections. The infested plant responds by channeling or converting the primary metabolites into secondary metabolites for plant defense, further reducing crop yield. The devastating feeding effect on maize becomes even more severe when maize plants are exposed to prolonged drought, during which the production of secondary metabolites is optimum. These secondary metabolites are food for herbivorous insects like the fall armyworm. Naturally, plants possess several adaptive features which enable them to cope and survive herbivorous insect attacks without compensating yield for plant defense. Such features include: thickening of the leaf cuticle of the epidermal cell walls, production of certain allelochemicals, defense proteins and the toxic chemical compound, favone glycoside (silk maysin). This review attempts to critically appraise the physiological implications of fall armyworm damage on developmental processes and maize yield. Understanding the mechanisms of various adaptive traits that confer resistance to maize against herbivorous insect damage would assist greatly in crop improvement processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Folake Bosede Anjorin
1
Oluwaseyi Oluwakemi Odeyemi
1
Olufolake Adenike Akinbode
1
Kehinde Tolulope Kareem
1

  1. Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan, Nigeria
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Abstract

The perspective direction in the biological regulation of insect pest populations is the combined use of different products of organic origin including fungal biological control agents. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of products of natural origin (Aminogreen 24, Nitrogreen, Foliamin and Naturalis − strain ATCC 74040 of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana) and one synthetic insecticide − standard (deltamethrin + thiacloprid), applied alone and in a mixture in the control of Acyrthosiphon pisum in forage pea. The study was conducted in a field experiment during the period 2017 − 2020. Infestation by leaf aphids was estimated by calculating the cumulative insect- -days ( CID). It was found that the combination of Aminogreen 24 + Naturalis had the most pronounced decrease in CID among products over the years from 2017 to 2020 and the average for the period. The greatest, significant reduction in the number of aphids occurred on day 5 (F8.5 = 15.244; p < 0.033) and day 7 (F8.5 = 33.087; p < 0.037) after treatment. On the 14th day, the decrease in CID (57.4% decrease) statistically exceeded the Proteus 110 OD standard (55.3% decrease) (F8.5 = 49.841; p < 0.049). Good protection against A. pisum was also found with Naturalis and Nitrogreen + Naturalis. There was an additive effect between Naturalis and Aminogreen 24 throughout the entire study period. The ratio of chlorophyll a (Chl a) to chlorophyll b (Chl b) and the ratio of green pigments (Chl a + + Chl b) to carotenoids determined that plants treated with Aminogreen 24 + Naturalis and Naturalis had the best physiological state. The combination of Aminogreen 24 and Naturalis gave the largest, significant, increase in stem height, followed by Nitrogreen + Naturalis. The use of Naturalis, alone and in a combination with Aminogreen 24 and Nitrogreen can be a successful alternative to conventional chemical control.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ivelina Nikolova
1

  1. Institute of Forage Crops, Agricultural Academy, Pleven, Bulgaria
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Abstract

Determination of interference periods, competitive ability and economic threshold level ( ETL) are important tools for integrated weed management (IWM) in barley. The objective of the work was to determine the periods of interference, the competitive ability and the ETL of weeds in barley ( Hordeum vulgare). Two field experiments were carried out, in a randomized block design, with four replications. In this study, the periods of coexistence and control for ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum) and turnip ( Raphanus raphanistrum) infesting barley cultivar, cv. ANA 01 were evaluated. The coexistence periods and/or control were: 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 120 days after barley emergence (DAE). In experiment 2the treatments for determination of ETLs were composed by barley cultivars (BRS Suábia, ANA 01, BRS Korbel, BRS Manduri, BRS Cauê and BRS Greta), and turnip densities, from zero (0) to maximum densities of 816, 788, 948, 394, 584 and 618 plants · m−2, in competition with each cultivar. Control of turnip and ryegrass should be adopted in barley in the period between 12 to 22 DAE, which is described as a critical control period. The rectangular hyperbola adequately estimates losses in grain yield due to turnip infestation. There is an effect on the competitive ability of the cultivars in relation to turnip, which resulted in ETLs that ranged from 0.27 to 1.99 plants · m−2. The cultivars BRS Greta, BRS Suábia, ANA 01 and BRS Manduri were the most competitive in the presence of turnip.
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Authors and Affiliations

Leandro Galon
1
Felipe José Menin Basso
1
Cesar Tiago Forte
1
Maico André Michelon Bagnara
1
Alessandra Gallina
1
Ignácio Aspiazú
2
André Luiz Radünz
1
Gismael Francisco Perin
1
Leonardo Brunetto
1

  1. Department of Agronomy, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Erechim, Brazil
  2. Department of Agricultural Sciences, State University of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil
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Abstract

Salinity is one of the most significant constraints to crop production in dry parts of the world. This research emphasizes the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial isolates (PGPR) on the physiological responses of maize and wheat in a saline (NaCl) environment. Soil samples for the study were collected from a maize field in Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India. Isolated bacterial strains were screened for salt (NaCl) tolerance and plant growth-promoting characters (i.e., indole acetic acid (IAA) production, siderophore production, amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production, and mineral phosphate solubilization). Screened bacterial isolates were further tested in pot experiments to examine their effects on wheat and maize growth. The treatments included five levels of bacterial inoculation (P0: control, P1: ACC deaminase positive + siderophore producer + NaCl tolerant bacteria, P2: mineral phosphate solubilizer + HCN producer + NaCl tolerant bacteria, P3: IAA producer + ACC deaminase positive + NaCl tolerant bacteria, P4: bacterial consortium, P5: Phosphomax commercial biofertilizer) and salt stress at 6 dS/m. Research findings found that exposure to a bacterial consortium led to the highest growth parameter in maize, including shoot length, root length, shoot and root dry weight followed by P2, P3, and P5 treatments at 6 dS/m salinity levels. However, P2 showed the best results for wheat at the same salinity levels, followed by P3, P4 and P5 treatments. P1 treatment did not show a significant result compared to control at 6dS/m salt level for both crops. The maximum proline content in maize and wheat was observed in P4 (23.28 μmol · g−1) and P2 (15.52 μmol · g−1) treatments, respectively, followed by P5 with Phosphomax biofertilizer. Therefore, the study proposed the application of growth-promoting bacterial isolates as efficient biofertilizers in the Baddi region of Himachal Pradesh, India.
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Authors and Affiliations

Arun Karnwal
1

  1. Department of Microbiology, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India
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Abstract

Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. is known to be one of the most invasive species worldwide. In this study, laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic properties of S. elaeagnifolium vegetative parts, root parts, fruit mucilage, and exudate extracts on plant communities and soil properties. In addition, the extract profiles of allelochemicals were quantified and their influence on soil properties and microorganisms was determined. Overall, the allelopathic performance of S. elaeagnifolium was established depending on the extract types, used concentrations, and target species. The doseresponse activity indicated that vegetative parts extract showed the greatest allelopathic potential followed by root parts extract. Subsequently, mucilage extract had a moderate inhibitory potential, while root exudates showed the least activity. The same trend with slight response was detected in soil properties of pH and EC properties. Polyphenols, in the range of 5.70–0.211 mg · g–1 and flavonols, in the range of 2.392–0.00 mg · g–1, were found in the analyzed samples extracted by ethyl acetate using LC-DAD-MS. The total phenol amount was 1.67 to 1.89 in the rhizosphere and 0.53 to 087 mg · g–1 in non-rhizosphere soils. Solanum elaeagnifolium exhibited a greater significant suppression of fungi count in both high and low-density areas than in rhizosphere bacteria. In conclusion, the strong and broadspectrum allelopathic potentials may enhance the ability of S. elaeagnifolium to impact seed germination and seedling growth of neighboring species. These biochemical weapons may play a critical role to facilitate their invasion and establishment in new agroecosystems.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed A. Balah
1
Whaby M. Hassany
1
Abdelnasser A. Kobici
1

  1. Plant Protection Department, Desert Research Center, Matariya, Cairo, Egypt
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Abstract

The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte is a quarantine intra-stem pest of sunflower, distributed mainly in the United States, and discovered in the Kherson region of Ukraine in 2020. The objective of this study was to establish a possible distribution zone of this species in Ukraine based on the results of bioclimatic modeling. The model was built by using programs DIVA GIS version 7.5.0 and BIOCLIM, which search for areas that are suitable for a particular organism, through geographic information systems and by comparing the world climate with the climate of areas in which it has already been identified. Analysis of the model shows that in Ukraine the pest can acclimatize in the Kherson region only (zone with up to 2.5% probability). Geographically, the territory is limited to 46−47° of north latitude and to 33−34° of north longitude. It is located on the Black Sea Lowland and covers territory lying no higher than 50 meters above the Black Sea level, whose land- -surface temperature in July averages more than 28°С. The North Crimean Canal and Krasnoznaamyansky Canal pass through the territory, which is limited in the south by Sivash, Karkinitsky Bay and Dzharilgatsky Bay of the Black Sea, in the west − by the Dnipro Delta, and in the north − by Kakhovka Reservoir and Kakhovskiy canal. The analysis of values of climatic predictors for the territories which are suitable for acclimatization of a phytophage demonstrated its high ecological plasticity and potential ability to move not only on coastal territories, but also on territories with a continental climate.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sergey Moroz
1
Andrew Fokin
1

  1. Department of Integrated Protection and Plant Quarantine, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Passion fruit is an important fruit crop grown in parts of southern and north-eastern states of India. Leaf curl symptoms typical to begomovirus infection were observed on passion fruit plants at three locations of Madikeri District, Karnataka State, India. The disease incidence ranged from 10–20% in all the locations. In order to determine if the begomovirus was associated with leaf curl disease of passion fruit, 20 infected samples collected from different locations were subjected to PCR analysis using primers specific to begomovirus. This resulted in an expected PCR product of ~1.2 kb. Sequence analysis of these products revealed that they have more than 98% similarity among them and have similarity with other begomoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of begomovirus associated with one sample (PF1 collected from CHES, Madikeri) was done using RCA. Further, sequencing of betasatellite and alphasatellite was done after PCR amplification using specific primers. Complete DNA-A sequence of PF-isolate with other begomoviruses revealed that it shared nucleotide (nt) identity of 87.8 to 88.8% with Ageratum enation virus. This indicated the association of a novel begomovirus with leaf curl disease of passion fruit in India, for which we propose the name, Passion fruit leaf curl virus (PFLCuV) [IN-Kar-18]. PFLCuV associated betasatellite shared 98.3% sequence identity with Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh betasatellite, while alphasatellite had 95.7% sequence identity with Cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite. Recombinant analysis indicated a major component of PFLCuV DNA-A may have originated from a recombination of earlier reported begomoviruses. Recombination as well as GC plot analysis showed that the recombination occurred in the genome regions having low GC content regions of PFLCuV. However, there is no evidence of recombination in alphasatellite and betasatellite associated with leaf curl disease of passion fruit. This is the first record of a novel begomovirus and satellites associated with leaf curl disease of passion fruit from India.
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Authors and Affiliations

Venkataravanappa Venkataravanappa
1
Lakshminarayana Reddy Cheegatagere Narasimha Reddy
2
Shridhar Hiremath
2
Bommanahalli Munivenkategowda Muralidhara
3
Suryanarayana Vishweswarasastry
4
Virendra K. Baranwal
5
Krishna Reddy Manem
6

  1. Central Horticultural Experimental Station, Indian Council of Agricultural Research – Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Chettalli, Madikeri, Karnataka, India
  2. Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vigyana Kendra, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  3. Indian Council of Agricultural Research – Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur, Karnataka, India
  4. Department of Forest Biology and Tree Improvement, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad, Sirsi, Karnataka, India
  5. Division of Plant Pathology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research – Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India
  6. Indian Council of Agricultural Research – Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
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Abstract

Nozzle type and herbicide application timing can affect herbicide efficacy. Prickly sida ( Sida spinosa) and barnyardgrass ( Echinochloa crus-galli) are problematic weeds in eastern Mississippi cotton production and have reduced yield in recent years. Field studies were conducted at two locations – Brooksville, MS (2018, 2019) and Starkville, MS (2019) to understand the nozzle type and herbicide application timing effects on prickly sida and barnyardgrass control in cotton. Studies also compared applications made by an eight-nozzle tractor-mounted sprayer with a four-nozzle backpack sprayer. Herbicide applications were made at four timings: preemergence (PRE), early-postemergence (EPOST), mid-postemergence (MPOST), and late-postemergence (LPOST) corresponding to the preemergence (immediately after planting), two-to-three leaf, four-to-six leaf, and early-bloom stages, respectively. Treatments were made at 140 l · ha−1 applied at each growth stage, with nozzle type and sprayer as variables by each timing. Results showed no differences in treatments applied with backpack and tractor-mounted sprayers. Control of barnyardgrass was significantly affected by nozzle type, but control of prickly sida was not significantly influenced by nozzle type. In all three site-years, plots receiving a MPOST only herbicide application resulted in less weed control than areas receiving a two-pass POST herbicide program. Cotton yield was significantly affected by the herbicide program at one site-year, but was not significantly affected by the herbicide program except where cotton injury exceeded 15%. A two- or three-pass herbicide program was most effective in controlling prickly sida and barnyardgrass in Mississippi cotton.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Connor Ferguson
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Justin S. Calhoun
3 2
Kayla L. Broster
2
Luke H. Merritt
4 2
Zachary R. Treadway
5 2
Michael T. Wesley Jr.
6 2
Nicholas Fleitz
7

  1. Weed Science and Technical Agronomy, Sesaco Corporation, Yukon, Oklahoma, United States
  2. Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States
  3. Plant Science and Technology, University of Missouri, Portageville, Missouri, United States
  4. Orr Agricultural Research & Demonstration Center, University of Illinois, Baylis, Illions, United States
  5. Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Ardmore, Oklahoma, United States
  6. Agronomy, Bayer Crop Science, Jerseyville, Illions, United States
  7. Application Agronomist, Pentair-Hypro, New Brighton, Minnesota, United States
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Abstract

During 2016–2020, a longitudinal bark canker was observed on walnut branches in some of the provinces of Iran. The symptoms appeared on one side of the branches. No visible symptoms were observed on the sapwood after removal of the bark using a blade. In order to detect a potential agent of these symptoms on walnut trees, collected samples were transferred to the laboratory for further investigation. After isolation and purification based on standard methods, a fungus was frequently isolated from symptomatic tissues. Morphological and molecular assays indicated that the responsible agent of this disease was Alternaria malorum, moreover, a pathogenicity test confirmed that A. malorum was pathogenic on walnut trees. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to identify A. malorum as a new causative agent of bark canker on walnut trees in the world.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shima Bagherabadi
1
Doustmorad Zafari
1

  1. Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
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Abstract

Knowing the tritrophic interactions between plant-virus-insect is important in developing sustainable pest management practices. Myzus persicae is a well-known plant viral vector which can transmit over 40 plant viruses. We studied the impact of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infection in Nicotiana tabacum on the colony development of M. persicae to understand how plant virus infection can affect vector growth and reproduction. Aphid growth, reproduction and fecundity were significantly affected by the virus infection. The mean relative growth rate of M. persicae on healthy plants was 0.29 mg–1 · mg–1 · day–1 and was significantly higher than that of CMV-infected plants (0.23 mg–1 · mg–1 · day–1). In contrast, the percentage of survival was significantly higher on CMV-infected plants. The estimated survival percentages of aphids at 20 days after introduction to CMV-infected and healthy plants were 55.8 and 25.8%, respectively. Therefore, the total population of aphids on CMVinfected plants was significantly higher on the 25th day after the introduction of aphids. The total population of aphids on the CMV-infected plants was 1,225 compared to that of healthy plants which was 713. Similarly, mean fecundity over a 30 day observation period was 61.25 and 35.65 for aphids grown on CMV-infected and healthy plants, respectively. Jasmonic acid (JA) upstream gene OPR3 and downstream gene COI1 was measured to quantify the changes in JA expression in the plants under the virus infection. Both genes tested were significantly downregulated in CMV-infected plants. From our results, it was evident that the JA related insect resistance was reduced in CMV-infected plants and hence aphid colony development was increased.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wikum Harshana Jayasinghe
1
Athuruliye Liyana Arachchige Romesh Ruwan Thanuja
2
Dineesha Nipuni Balagalla
3

  1. Department of Agricultural Biology, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
  2. Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, United States
  3. Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

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Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

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