The article is a follow-up and an extension to previously published papers by HolzerŻelażewska & Holzer (1997) and Holzer-Żelażewska & Tymicki (2009). Fristly, we have added new cohorts to the cohort analysis based on the individual data from births registration for the years 2009–2015. Secondly, we have extended the scope of the study by taking into account the context of postponement and recuperation to analyses of cohort fertility of Polish women.
The approach applied to the fertility postponement and recuperation on the cohort data refers to the method which was originally proposed by Frejka (2011) and Lesthaeghe (2001) and further developed by Sobotka et al. (Sobotka et al., 2011). This method allows for calculation of fertility postponement and recuperation measures with respect to a benchmark cohort chosen as the one that first experiences an onset of the increase in the mean age of motherhood at first birth.
The results show the remarkable changes in the fertility patterns in Poland. The main driving forces behind the change in fertility patterns in Poland are related to the postponement of first births along with a relatively good recuperation. The magnitude of recuperation for Polish cohorts dropped significantly for second births and was almost non-existent for third and higher births. Therefore, the pattern of fertility in Poland observed till 2015 could be characterized by postponement and recuperation of first births along with a significant decrease in second births with perpetual postponement of third and higher births.
Previous studies identified large differences between countries in the extent to which childbearing intentions are realised. Failure to realise an intention to become a parent was found to be particularly common in the post-socialist countries. In this paper we examine whether similarly low rates of realisation of fertility intentions can be found in Poland. We use two waves of the Polish Generations and Gender Survey (GGS-PL), conducted in 2010/2011 and 2014/2015. We first describe fertility intentions of Polish women and men as declared at the survey’s first wave. Next, we examine whether the short-term childbearing intentions expressed at wave 1 were followed by an actual birth by the second round of the data collection. For the respondents who did not get a child between waves 1 and 2, we analyse the stability of their fertility plans. We find that approximately 35% of the respondents who at wave 1 intended to have a child in the next three years actually had one by wave 2. Both realisation and stability of fertility intentions varied markedly by gender and parity.
Providing informal care to adults, especially elderly people, may affect many aspects of caregivers’ life, such as: physical and mental health, financial situation, social contacts, etc. Supporting dependent seniors is associated to a higher level of stress, burden and depression as well as higher mortality. The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between caregiving for adults and the subjective quality of life among Poles aged 50–69. We took into account not only the fact of providing care to adult people, but also its beginning, continuation and ending between waves. We assumed that subjective quality of life may be expressed by two variables: one describing life satisfaction, and the second one – loneliness. We used the panel subsample from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS) carried out in Poland in 2010/2011 and in 2014. We found a negative effect of stopping caregiving between waves on wellbeing of women-carers, which may be related to the loss of a close person. Moreover, providing care for a longer period of time increases loneliness, which confirms that providing support to others may lead to isolation and smaller social networks.
Being more sensitive to economic fluctuations, childbearing postponement increased during the second demographic transition and was accompanied by a moderate decline in the number of children per woman and the progressive rise of mother’s age at first birth. Under the hypothesis that recessions have a marked influence on population dynamics, the present study investigates spatial changes in mother’s age at birth in Greece with the aim to assess the differential impact of economic crisis along the urban-rural gradient. The percent composition of births by mother's age class – considered a gross indicator of fertility under a changing socioeconomic context – was studied at 4 spatial scales (the whole country, administrative regions, prefectures and metropolitan areas or specific economic districts) over an economic cycle from expansion to recession (1980–2016). While stimulating childbearing postponement observed since the early 1980s, empirical results of this study indicate that the 2007 recession was quite neutral on fertility trends in Greece, consolidating the traditional divide between urban and rural areas.
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