Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2021 | vol. 70 | No 3 |

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Lightning is one of the causes of transmission disorders and natural phenomena that cannot be avoided. The South Sulawesi region is located close to the equator and has a high lightning density. This condition results in lightning susceptibility of disturbances to electrical system lines, especially in high-voltage airlines and substations. An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) will show the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) based on the membership function type. This journal is to predict the value of the transmission tower lightning density using the ANFIS method. The value of the lightning strike density index can later be determined based on ANFIS predictions. Analysis of the value calculation system of structural lightning strikes in the South Sulawesi region of the Sungguminasa-Tallasa route can be categorized as three characteristics lightning density (Nd). The calculation system results for the value of structural lightning struck in the South Sulawesi region and validated between manual calculations and ANFIS with an average percentage of 0.0554%.
Go to article


[1] Utomo B.T., Nappu M.B., Said S.M., Arief A., The Placement of the Transmission Lightning Arrester (TLA) at 150 kV Network using Fuzzy Logic, in 2018 10th International Conference on Information Technology and Electrical Engineering (ICITEE), pp. 347–352 (2018).
[2] Rawi I.M., Kadir M.Z.A.A., Azis N., Lightning study and experience on the first 500kV transmission line arrester in Malaysia, in 2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), pp. 1106–1109 (2014), DOI: 10.1109/ICLP.2014.6973289.
[3] Gassing, Analisis Sistem Proteksi Petir (Lighting Performance) Pada Sutt 150 kV Sistem Sulawesi Selatan, vol. 6, pp. 978–979 (2012).
[4] Apriyadi M., Manjang S., Nappu M.B., Tegangan Impuls Dan Arus Transien Jaringan Transmisi 150 kV Sinjai-Bone Akibat Sambaran Petir Menggunakan ATPDraw, Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 156–164 (2014).
[5] Lembang N., Manjang S., Kitta I., Efek Penurunan Tahanan Pembumian Tower 150 kV terhadap Sistem Penyaluran Petir, J. Penelit. Enj., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 7–15 (2017).
[6] Islam M.Z., Rashed M.R., Yusuf M.S.U., ATP-EMTP modeling and performance test of different type lightning arrester on 132kv overhead transmission tower, in 2017 3rd International Conference on Electrical Information and Communication Technology (EICT), pp. 1–6 (2017).
[7] Houari K., Hartani T., Remini B., Lefkir A., Abda L., Heddam S., A hybrid model for modelling the salinity of the Tafna River in Algeria, J. Water L. Dev., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 127–135 (2019).
[8] Gubán M., Kása R., Takács D., Avornicului M., Trends of using artificial intelligence in measuring innovation potential, Manag. Prod. Eng. Rev., vol. 10 (2019).
[9] Jang J.S.R., MATLAB: Fuzzy logic toolbox user’s guide: Version 1 (1997).
[10] Said S.M., Latief S., Determination Of Sensorless Input Parameters Of Solar Panel With Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (Anfis) Methods, Indonesia (2018).
[11] Marsudi D., Operasi Sistem Tenaga Listrik (2006).
[12] Ishii M. et al., Multistory transmission tower model for lightning surge analysis, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1327–1335 (1991).
[13] Ito T., Ueda T., Watanabe H., Funabashi T., Ametani A., Lightning flashovers on 77-kV systems: observed voltage bias effects and analysis, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 545–550 (2003).
[14] Correia M.T., Festas J., Milheiras H., FelizardoN., Fernadez M., Sousa J., Methodologies for evaluating the lightning performance of transmission lines, ICOLIM (1998).
[15] Oktaviani W.A., Hati I.P., Efektifitas Perlindungan Kawat Tanah Jaringan SUTM 20 kV Gardu Induk Boom Baru Palembang, PROtek J. Ilm. Tek. Elektro, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 90–95 (2019).
[16] Nugroho A., Syakur A., Penentuan Lokasi Pemasangan Lightning Masts Pada Menara Transmisi Untuk Mengurangi Kegagalan Perlindungan Akibat Sambaran Petir, Transmisi, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 31–36 (2005).
[17] Simon R., Geetha A., Comparison on the performance of Induction motor control using fuzzy and ANFIS controllers, in 2013 IEEE International Conference ON Emerging Trends in Computing, Communication and Nanotechnology (ICECCN), pp. 491–495 (2013).
[18] Lincy L.M., Senthil K.R., Comparison Analysis of Fuzzy Logic and ANFIS Controller for Mitigation of Harmonics, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Electr. Energy Syst. ICEES 2018, pp. 578–583 (2018).
[19] Rahman M.M.A., Rahim A., Performance evaluation of ANN and ANFIS based wind speed sensorless MPPT controller, in 2016 5th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics and Vision (ICIEV), pp. 542–546 (2016).
[20] Ali M., Nurohmah H., Raikhani A., Sopian H., Sutantra N., Combined ANFIS method with FA, PSO, and ICA as Steering Control Optimization on Electric Car, in 2018 Electrical Power, Electronics, Communications, Controls and Informatics Seminar (EECCIS), pp. 299–304 (2018).
[21] Aniserowicz K., Analytical calculations of surges caused by direct lightning strike to underground intrusion detection system, Bull. Polish Acad. Sci. Tech. Sci., vol. 67, no. 2 (2019).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sri Mawar Said
Muhammad Bachtiar Nappu
Andarini Asri
Bayu Tri Utomo

  1. Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  2. Ujung Pandang State Polytechnic, Indonesia
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper focuses on the invariance of the reachability and observability for fractional order positive linear electrical circuits with delays and their checking methods. By derivation and comparison, it shows that conditions and checking methods of reachability and observability for integer and fractional order positive linear electrical circuits with delays are invariant. An illustrative example is presented at the end of the paper.
Go to article


[1] Dorf C.R., Svoboda A.J., Introduction to electric circuits, John Wiley & Sons (2010).
[2] Kaczorek T., Rogowski K., Fractional linear systems and electrical circuit, Springer (2015).
[3] Federico M., Power system modelling and scripting, Springer (2010).
[4] Kaczorek T., Selected problems of fractional systems theory, Springer (2011).
[5] Xin Z., Wenru L. et al., Application of fractional calculus in iterative sliding mode synchronization control, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 499–519 (2020).
[6] Piotrowska E., Analysis of linear continuous-time systems by the use of the conformable fractional calculus and Caputo, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 629–639 (2018).
[7] Francisco G.A.J., Juan R.G., Fractional RC and LC electrical circuits, Ingeniera, Investigacin y Tecnologa, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 311–319 (2014).
[8] Sikora R., Fractional derivatives in electrical circuit theory-critical remarks, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 155–163 (2017).
[9] Sikora R., Pawłowski S., Problematic Applications of Fractional Derivatives in Electrotechnics and Electrodynamics, Conference on Selected Issues of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Szczecin, Poland, pp. 1–5 (2018).
[10] Sikora R., Pawłowski S., Fractional derivatives and the laws of electrical engineering, COMPEL-The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1384–1391 (2018).
[11] Muthana T.A., Mohamed Z., On the control of time delay power systems, International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 769–792 (2013).
[12] Zhaoyan L., Jun Q., A simple method to compute delay margin of power system with single delay, Automation of Electric Power System, vol. 32, no. 18, pp. 8–13 (2008).
[13] Jianjun Z., Yonggao Z., Research on optimal configuration of fault current limiter based on reliability in large power network, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 661–677 (2020).
[14] Kaczorek T., Stability of positive continuous-time linear systems with delays, Bulletin of The Polish Academy of Sciences-technical Sciences, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 395–398 (2009).
[15] Kaczorek T., Stability tests of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with delays, TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 211–215 (2013).
[16] Xianming Z., Min W., On delay-dependent stability for linear systems with delay, Journal of Circuit and Systems, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 118–120 (2003).
[17] Hai Z., Daiyong W., Stability analysis for fractional-order linear singular delay differential systems, Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, vol. 2014, no. 2014, pp. 1–8 (2014).
[18] Xianggeng Z., Yuxia L. et al., Stability analysis of fractional-order Langford systems, Journal of Shandong University of Science and Technology (Natural Science), vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 65–71(2019).
[19] Wei J., Zhicheng W., Controllability of singular control systems with delay, Journal of Hunan University, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 6–9 (1999).
[20] Qiong W., Wei J., The complete controllability, after all controllability, ultimate controllability and quasi controllability of delay control system, College Mathematic, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 63–66 (2003).
[21] Wei J., The controllability of delay degenerate control systems with independent subsystems, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 706–713 (2003).
[22] Peng L.,Wenlong W. et al., Alternate Charging and Discharging of Capacitor to Enhance the Electron Production of Bioelectrochemical Systems, Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 15, pp. 6647–6653 (2011).
[23] Kaczorek T., Reachability and controllability to zero of positive fractional discrete-time systems, European Control Conference, Kos, Greece, pp. 1708–1712 (2007).
[24] Xindong S., Hongli Y., A new method for judgement computation of stability and stabilization of fractional order positive systems with constraints, Journal of Shandong University of Science and Technology (Natural Science), vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 12–20 (2021).
[25] Kaczorek T., Invariant properties of positive linear electrical circuit, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 875–890 (2019).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Tong Yuan
Hongli Yang

  1. Shandong University of Science and Technology, China
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


A smart control based on neural networks for multicellular converters has been developed and implemented. The approach is based on a behavioral description of the different converter operating modes. Each operating mode represents a well-defined configuration for which an operating zone satisfying given invariance conditions, depending on the capacitors’ voltages and the load current of the converter, is assigned. A control vector, whose components are the control signals to be applied to the converter switches is generated for each mode. Therefore, generating the control signals becomes a classification task of the different operating zones. For this purpose, a neural approach has been developed and implemented to control a 2-cell converter then extended to a 3-cell converter. The developed approach has been compared to super-twisting sliding mode algorithm. The obtained results demonstrate the approach effectiveness to provide an efficient and robust control of the load current and ensure the balancing of the capacitors voltages.
Go to article


[1] Benmansour K., Réalisation d’un banc d’essai pour la Commande et l’Observation des Convertisseurs Multicellulaires séries, Approche Hybride, PhD Thesis, Université de Cergy Pontoise, France (2009).
[2] Colak I., Kabalci E., Bayindira R., Review of multilevel voltage source inverter topologies and control schemes, Energy Conversion and Management Journal, vol. 52, iss. 2, pp. 1114–1128 (2011).
[3] Laidi K., Benmansour K., Ferdjouni A., Bouchhida O., Real-time implementation of an interconnected observer design for p-cells chopper, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 5–20 (2010).
[4] Meynard T., Foch H., Multilevel choppers for high voltage applications, European Power Electronics and Drives Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45–50 (1992).
[5] Meynard T., Foch H., Electronic device for electrical energy conversion between a voltage source and a current source by means of controllable switching cells, European Patent 92/91 6336.8 (1992).
[6] Laidi K., Benmansour K., High Order Sliding Mode Controller of Mid-point Multi-cellular Converter, 2nd International Symposium on Friendly Energy and Applications, Newcastle Upon Tyne, pp. 493–498 (2012).
[7] Pinon D., Commande des Convertisseurs Multicellulaires par Mode de Glissement, PhD Thesis, INPT, Toulouse (2000).
[8] Skender M.R., Tlemçani A., A New Algorithme Observer of Higher Order Sliding Mode Applied to Serial Multicell Converter, Revue Roumaine des Sciences Techniques – Série Électrotechnique et Énergétique, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 126–130 (2016).
[9] Zhang H., Dong H., Zhang B., Tong Wu, Changwen Chen, Research on beam supply control strategy based on sliding mode control, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no 2, pp. 349–364 (2020).
[10] Amet L., Ghanes M., Barbot J.P., Direct control based on sliding mode techniques for multicells serial chopper, American Control Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA (2011).
[11] Laamiri S., Ghanes M., Amet L., Santomenna.G, Direct Control Strategy for a Three Phase Eight-Level Flying-Capacitor Inverter, IFAC Journal of Systems and Control, vol. 50, iss. 1, pp. 15786–15791 (2017).
[12] Benzineb O., Taibi F., Benbouzid M.E., Boucherit M.S., Tadjine M., Multicell Converters Hybrid Sliding Mode Control, IFAC World Congress 2014, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 11659–11666 (2014).
[13] Bensaid S., Bensaad K., Benrejeb M., On Two Control Strategies for Multicellular Converters, International Journal of Control, Energy and Electrical Engineering (CEEE), vol. 1, pp. 37–42 (2014).
[14] Djondine P., Barbot J.P., Ghanes M., Comparison of sliding mode and petri nets control for multicellular chopper, International Journal of Nonlinear Science, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 67–75 (2018).
[15] Salinas S., Ghanes M., Barbot J.P., Escalante F., Amghar B., Modeling and Control Design Based on Petri Nets for Serial Multicellular Choppers, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 23, no. 1 (2015).
[16] Derugo P., Zychlewicz M., Reproduction of the control plane as a method of selection of settings for an adaptive fuzzy controller with Petri layer, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 609–624 (2020).
[17] Manon P., Valentin C.R., Gilles G., Optimal Control of Hybrid Dynamical Systems: Application in Process Engineering, Control Engineering Practice, pp. 133–149 (2002).
[18] Teel A.R., Bonivento C., Isidori A., Marconi L., Rossi C., Robust hybrid control systems: an overview of some recent results, Advances in Control Theory and Applications, Springer, vol. 353, pp. 279–302 (2007).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Kamel Laidi
Ouahid Bouchhida
Mokhtar Nibouche
Khelifa Benmansour

  1. University of Medea, Algeria
  2. University of the West of England, United Kingdom
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The axial-radial flux type permanent magnet synchronous machine (ARFTPMSM) can adjust the main magnetic field by controlling the axial flux, so it can overcome the problem that the flux of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is difficult to adjust. Due to the existence of the axial device in the ARFTPMSM, the finite element method (FEM) is used to establish a three-dimensional model for analysis. By analyzing the magnetic density distribution of the rotor, it is found that there is a serious magnetic leakage phenomenon at both ends of the tangential permanent magnet. The rotor material at the end of the tangent permanent magnet is replaced by non-ferromagnetic material to reduce the magnetic leakage. On this basis, the influence of the width of the non-ferromagnetic material on the performance of the motor is compared. By Fourier decomposition of the back-EMF waveform, the total harmonic distortion (THD) rate of the back-EMF under different axial magnetomotive force (MMF) was calculated. Finally, the eddy current distribution and the eddy current loss of the rotor are analyzed, and the variation law of the eddy current loss is summarized. The conclusion can provide reference for the optimal design of the ARFTPMSM.
Go to article


[1] Zhao X., Niu S., Ching T.W., Design and Analysis of a New Brushless Electrically Excited Claw-Pole Generator for Hybrid Electric Vehicle, in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1–5 (2018).
[2] Sathyan Sabin et al., Influence of Magnetic Forces and Magnetostriction on the Vibration Behavior of an Induction Motor, pp. 825–834 (2019).
[3] Hongbo Qiu, Yong Zhang et al., Performance Analysis and Comparison of PMSM with Concentrated Winding and Distributed Winding [J], Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 303–317 (2020).
[4] Kommuri S.K., Defoort M., Karimi H.R., Veluvolu K.C., A Robust Observer-Based Sensor Fault- Tolerant Control for PMSM in Electric Vehicles, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 7671–7681 (2016).
[5] Liu X., Chen H., Zhao J., Belahcen A., Research on the Performances and Parameters of Interior PMSM Used for Electric Vehicles, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 3533–3545 (2016).
[6] Tong W. et al., Feasibility Analysis of 100 kA DC Commutation Scheme to be Applied in the Quench Protection Unit of CFETR, in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1–9 (2020).
[7] Yıldırız E., Onbilgin G., Comparative study of new axial field permanent magnet hybrid excitation machines, in IET Electric Power Applications, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1347–1355 (2017).
[8] Weili L., Hongbo Q., Ran Y., Xiaochen Z., Liyi L., Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field Calculation and Analysis of Axial–Radial Flux-Type High-Temperature Superconducting Synchronous Motor, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 23, no. 1, article sequence number 5200607 (2013).
[9] Zhang Z., Liu Y., Tian B., Wang W., Investigation and Implementation of a New Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Machine Drive System, IET Electric Power Application, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 487–494 (2017).
[10] Kim K., A Novel Magnetic Flux Weakening Method of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles, in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 4042–4045 (2012).
[11] Kim D.Y., Jang G.H., Nam J.K., Magnetically Induced Vibrations in an IPM Motor Due to Distorted Magnetic Forces Arising From Flux Weakening Control, in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3929–3932 (2013), DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2013.2238614.
[12] Hua W., Cheng M., Zhang G., A Novel Hybrid Excitation Flux-Switching Motor for Hybrid Vehicles, in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 4728–4731 (2009).
[13] Wang D., Zhang D., Xue D., Peng C.,Wang X., A New Hybrid Excitation Permanent Magnet Machine with an Independent AC Excitation Port, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 5872–5882 (2019).
[14] Lee J. et al., A Study on Analysis of Synchronous Reluctance Motor Considering Axial Flux Leakage Through End Plate, in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1–4, article sequence number 8201704 (2019).
[15] Ye X., Zheng S., Zhang Y., He Z., Modeling and Optimization of IRTMB for High-Speed Motor Considering Magnetic Flux Leakage Effect, 2019 22nd International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Harbin, China, pp. 1–5 (2019).
[16] Qiu H., Yu W., Tang B., Mu Y., Li W., Yang C., Study on the Influence of Different Rotor Structures on the Axial-Radial Flux Type Synchronous Machine, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 5406–5413 (2018), DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2017.2784339.
[17] Hu W., Zhang X., Lei Y., Du Q., Shi L., Liu G., Analytical Model of Air-Gap Field in Hybrid Excitation and Interior Permanent Magnet Machine for Electric Logistics Vehicles, in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 148237–148249 (2020), DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3015601.
[18] Ma S., Zhang Z., Investigation of field regulation characteristic of a hybrid excitation synchronous machine with axial auxiliary air-gaps, 2012 15th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Sapporo, pp. 1–6 (2012).
[19] Jiang X., Xu D., Gu L., Li Q., Xu B., Li Y., Short-Circuit Fault-Tolerant Operation of Dual-Winding Permanent-Magnet Motor Under the Four-Quadrant Condition, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 6789–6798 (2019), DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2018.2878131.
[20] Hongbo Q., Ran Y.,Weili L., Nan J., Influence of rectifiers on high speed permanent magnet generator electromagnetic and temperature fields in distributed power generation systems, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 655–662 (2015), DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2014.2366194.
[21] Weili L., Hongbo Q., Ran Y., Xiaochen Z., Liyi L., Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field Calculation and Analysis of Axial–Radial Flux-Type High-Temperature Superconducting Synchronous Motor, in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 23, no. 1, article sequence number 5200607 (2013), DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2012.2232923.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Hongbo Qiu
Shubo Zhang

  1. Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, China
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


This paper presents the optimal PID tuning study to improve the dynamic performance of an automatic voltage regulation (AVR) system. The system under study consists of a synchronous generator whose reference voltage changes in a step function and tries to overcome the transient behavior of its terminal voltage smoothly. To optimally control the performance, different optimization techniques are applied to tune the controller gains to obtain the minimum steady state error (main objective) and better dynamic characteristics (rise time, settling time, max overshoot, etc.). Then the AVR system responses with a PID controller based on different optimization techniques are compared to find out which is the best technique.
Go to article


[1] Mahmut Temel Özdemir, Vedat Çelik, Stability analysis of the automatic voltage regulation system with PI controller, Journal of Sakarya University Institute of Science, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 698–705 (2017).
[2] Challapuram Yaswanth Reddy et al., Laboratory implementation of Automatic Voltage Regulator, Biennial International Conference on Power and Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable Energy (PESTSE), Bangalore, pp. 1–6 (2016).
[3] Saidy M., Huges F.M., A predictive integrated voltage regulator and power system stabilizer, Elsevier proceedings on Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 101–111 (1995).
[4] Rakesh Singh Lodhi, Abhishek Saraf, Survey on PID Controller Based Automatic Voltage Regulator, International Journal ofAdvancedResearch in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 7424–7429 (2016).
[5] Haluk Gozde, Cengiz Taplamacioglu M., Comparative performance analysis of artificial bee colony algorithm for automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system, Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 348, no. 8, pp. 1927–1946 (2011).
[6] Gaing Z.-L., A particle swarm optimization approach for optimum design of PID controller in AVR system, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 384–391 (2004).
[7] Elgard O.I., Electric Energy Systems Theory, New York, Mc Graw-Hill (1982).
[8] Mukherjee V., Ghoshal S.P., Intelligent particle swarm optimized fuzzy PID controller for AVR system, Electron. Power Syst. Res., vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 1689–1698 (2007).
[9] Sambariya D.K., Tripti Gupta, Optimal Design of PID Controller for an AVR System Using Flower Pollination Algorithm, Journal of Automation and Control, vol. 6, iss. 1, pp. 1–14 (2018).
[10] dos Santos Coelho L., Tuning of PID controller for an automatic regulator voltage system using chaotic optimization approach, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1504–1514 (2009).
[11] Qader M.R., Identifying the optimal controller strategy for DC motors, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 101–114 (2019).
[12] Eswaramma K., Surya Kalyan G., An Automatic Voltage Regulator AVR System Control using a P-I-DD Controller, Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 499–506 (2017).
[13] Aström K.J., Hägglund T., PID Controllers: Theory, Design, and Tuning, Instrument Society of America, USA (1995). [14] Yang X.-S., Flower pollination algorithm for global optimization, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7445, pp. 240–249 (2012).
[15] Chiroma H., Shuib N.L.M., Muaz S.A., Abubakar A.I., Ila L.B., Maitama J.Z., A review of the applications of bio-inspired flower pollination algorithm, Procedia Computer Science, vol. 62, pp. 435–441 (2015).
[16] Mihailo Micev, Martin Calasan, Diego Oliva, Fractional Order PID Controller Design for an AVR System Using Chaotic Yellow Saddle Goatfish Algorithm, Mathematics, vol. 8, no. 1182 (2020), DOI: 10.3390/math8071182.
[17] Sahib M.A., A novel optimal PID plus second order derivative controller for AVR system, Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, vol. 18, iss. 2, pp. 194–206 (2015).
[18] Abdel-Raouf Osama,Abdel-Baset M., el-Henawy I., A new hybrid flower pollination algorithm for solving constrained global optimization problems, International Journal of Applied Operational Research- An Open Access Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1–13 (2014).
[19] Sambariya D.K., Gupta T., Optimal design of PID controller for an AVR system using monarch butterfly optimization, International Conference on Information, Communication, Instrumentation and Control (ICICIC), Indore, India, pp. 1-6 (2017).
[20] Priyambada S., Mohanty P.K., Sahu B.K., Automatic voltage regulator using TLBOalgorithm optimized PID controller, 2014 9th International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), Gwalior, India, pp. 1–6 (2014).
[21] Niknam Taher, Rasoul Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Narimani Mohammad Rasoul, A new multi objective optimization approach based on TLBO for location of automatic voltage regulators in distribution systems, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, vol. 25, pp. 1577–1588 (2012).
[22] Askarzadeh Alireza, Rashedi Esmat, Harmony Search Algorithm. Recent Developments in intelligent Nature-Inspired Computing (2017), DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2322-2.ch001.
[23] Mohanty Pradeep, Sahu Binod, Panda Sidhartha, Kar Sanjeeb, Mishra Nandan, Performance Analysis and Design of Proportional Integral Derivative Controlled Automatic Voltage Regulator System Using Local Unimodal Sampling Optimization Technique, pp. 566–576 (2012), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-35380-2_66.

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Haya Hesham
M. Ezzat
Rania A. Swief

  1. Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Elsarayat St., Abbaseya, 11517 Cairo, Egypt
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The degradation process of wind turbines is greatly affected by external factors. Wind turbine maintenance costs are high. The regular maintenance of wind turbines can easily lead to over and insufficient maintenance. To solve the above problems, a stochastic degradation model (SDE, stochastic differential equation) is proposed to simulate the change of the state of the wind turbine. First, the average degradation trend is obtained by analyzing the properties of the stochastic degradation model. Then the average degradation model is used to describe the predictive degradation model. Then analyze the change trend between the actual degradation state and the predicted state of the wind turbine. Secondly, according to the update process theory, the effect of maintenance on the state of wind turbines is comprehensively analyzed to obtain the availability. Then based on the average degradation process, the optimal maintenance period of the wind turbine is obtained. The optimal maintenance time of wind turbines is obtained by optimizing the maintenance cycle through availability constraints. Finally, an onshore wind turbine is used as an example to verification. Based on the historical fault data of wind turbines, the optimized maintenance decision is obtained by analyzing the reliability and maintenance cost of wind turbines under periodic and non-equal cycle conditions. The research results show that maintenance based on this model can effectively improve the performance of wind turbines and reduce maintenance costs.
Go to article


[1] Tchakoua P., Wamkeue R., Ouhrouche M. et al., Wind turbine condition monitoring: state-of-the-art review, new trends, and future challenges, Energies, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 2595–2630 (2014).
[2] Su C., Hu Z.Y., Reliability assessment for Chinese domestic wind turbines based on data mining techniques, Wind Energy, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 198–209 (2018).
[3] Zhao Hongshan, Zhang Jianping, Gao Duo et al., A condition based opportunistic maintenance strategy for wind turbine, Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 35, no. 15, pp. 3851–3858 (2015).
[4] ChengYujing, Optimization maintenance research of wind turbines pitch system based on opportunistic maintenance strategy, Shanghai, Shang Hai Dianji University (2013).
[5] Li Hui, Yang Chao, Li Xuewei et al., Conditions characteristic parameters mining and outlier identification for electric pitch system of wind turbine, Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1922–1930 (2014).
[6] Besnard F., Bertling L., An approach for condition-based maintenance optimization applied to wind turbine blades, IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 77–83 (2010).
[7] Liu Lujie, FuYang,Ma Shiwei et al., Maintenance strategy for offshore wind turbine based on condition monitoring and prediction, Power System Technology, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 3292–3297 (2015).
[8] Suprasad V., Amari Leland Mclaughlin, Hoang Pham, Cost-effective condition-based maintenance using Markov decision processes, Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, pp. 464–469 (2006).
[9] Zhao Hongshan, Zhang Jianping, Gao Duo et al., A condition based opportunistic maintenance strategy for wind turbine under imperfect maintenance, Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 3851–3858 (2016).
[10] Li Dazi, Feng Yuanyuan, Liu Zhan et al., Reliability modeling and maintenance strategy optimization for wind power generation sets, Power System Technology, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 122–127 (2011).
[11] Fu Yang, Xu Weixin, Liu Lujie et al., Optimization of preventive opportunistic maintenance strategy for offshore wind turbine considering weather conditions, Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 5947–5956 (2018).
[12] Tian Z., Jin T., Wu B. et al., Condition based maintenance optimization for wind power generation systems under continuous monitoring, Renewable Energy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1502–1509 (2011).
[13] Yildirim M., Gebraeel N., Sun X., Integrated Predictive Analytics and Optimization for Opportunistic Maintenance and Operations in Wind Farms, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, pp. 4319–4328 (2017).
[14] Elwany A.H., Gebraeel N.Z., Sensor-driven prognostic models for equipment replacement and spare parts inventory, IIE Transactions, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 629–639 (2008).
[15] Liu Haiqing, Lin Weijian, Li Yuancheng, Ultra-short-term wind power prediction based on copula function and bivariate EMD decomposition algorithm, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 271–286 (2020).
[16] Wang Shaohua, Zhang Yaohui et al., Optimal condition-based maintenance decision-making method of multi-component system based on simulation, Acta Armamentarii, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 568–575 (2017).
[17] Liu Junqiang, Xie Jianwei et al., Residual lifetime prediction for aeroengines based on wiener process with random effect, Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 564–574 (2015).
[18] Palmer T.N., A nonlinear dynamical perspective on model error; A proposal for non-local stochasticdynamic parametrization in weather and climate prediction models, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 127, no. 572, pp. 279–304 (2010).
[19] Gong Guanglu, Qian Minping, Application of stochastic process tutorial and its stochastic models in algorithms and intelligent computing, Beijing, Tsinghua University Press (2004).
[20] Rausand M., System Reliability Theory: Models, Statistical Methods, and Applications, 2nd Edition, Statistical methods in reliability theory and practice, E. Horwood (2004).
[21] Su Hongsheng, Control strategy on preventive maintenance of repairable device, Journal of Zhejiang University (Engineering Science), vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1308–1314 (2010).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Hongsheng Su
Xuping Duan
Dantong Wang

  1. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The article presents the analysis results of the effectiveness limitation of the step voltage by forming an electric field on the ground surface. For shaping the electric field, a method consisting of screens placed around the point of the earth current flow was used. The analysis was performed using an example of an MV/LV substation grounding system. This research was conducted applying a mathematical model of the grounding system and screens by means of the finite element method. The influence of metal, insulating screens and surface material on the step/touch voltage values for the considered grounding system was estimated. Most of the methods described can be applied in practice. In the opinion of the authors, the method of using screens made of insulating and conductive materials has not been sufficiently described in the literature. Moreover, in the available literature there is no in-depth analysis of the described electric field shaping methods.
Go to article


[1] Czapp S., Protection against electric shock in high voltage overhead electrical lines – present state of the standards, The Scientific Papers of Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering Gdansk University of Technology (in Polish), ISSN 1425–5766, no. 35/2013, pp. 21–26 (2013).
[2] IEEE 80 Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding (2013).
[3] IEEE Std 665-1995 Standard for Generating Stations Grounding (1996).
[4] PN-EN 50522:2011 Earthing of power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c.
[5] Baka D.A., Uzunoglu K.N., Detecting and Avoiding Step Voltage Hazards, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 2519–2526 (2015).
[6] Cardoso C., Rocha L., Leiria A., Teixeira P., Validation of an integrated methodology for design of grounding systems through field measurements (2017), DOI: 10.1049/oap-cired.2017.0452.
[7] Tang B., Huang Y., Liu R.,Wu Z., Qu Z., Fitting algorithm of transmission tower grounding resistance in vertically layered soil models, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 139, pp. 121–126 (2016).
[8] Gazzanaa S.D., Bretasa S.A., Diasa A.D.G., Tellób M., ThomascW.P.D., Christopoulos C., A study of human safety against lightning considering the grounding system and the evaluation of the associated parameters, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 113, pp. 88–94 (2014).
[9] Faleiro E., Asensio G., Denche G., Moreno J., Electric behavior of conductor systems embedded in finite inhomogeneous volumes scattered into a multilayered soil: The problem of High-Resistivity Ratios revisited, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 148, pp. 183–191 (2017).
[10] Raizera A., Valente W.Jr., Luiz Coelho V., Development of a new methodology for measurements of earth resistance, touch and step voltages within urban substations, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 153, pp. 111–118 (2017).
[11] Berberovic S., Haznadar Z., Stih Z., Method of moments in analysis of grounding systems, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, vol. 27, pp. 351–360 (2003).
[12] Ma J., Dawalibi F.P., Southey R.D., On the equivalence of uniform and two-layer soils to multiplayer soils in the analysis of grounding systems, IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 143, no. 1 (1996).
[13] Ma J., Dawalibi F.P., Daily W.K., Analysis of grounding systems in soils with hemispherical layering, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 8, no. 4 (1993).
[14] Ma J., Dawalibi F.P., Analysis of grounding systems in soils with cylindrical soil volumes, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 15, no. 3 (2000).
[15] Grcev L.D., Heimbach M., Frequency dependent and transient characteristics of substation grounding systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 12, pp. 172–178 (1997).
[16] Zhang B., Jiang Y., Wu J., He J., Influence of Potential Difference Within Large Grounding Grid on Fault Current Division Factor, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 29, pp. 1752–1759 (2014).
[17] Trifunovic J.,Kostic M.B., An Algorithm for Estimating the Grounding Resistance of Complex Grounding Systems Including Contact Resistance, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 51, pp. 5167–5174 (2015).
[18] Report of the Substation CommitteeWorking Group 78.1, IEEE 80 Guide for Safety in A–C Substations – Review, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. 101, no. 10 (1982).
[19] Colominas I., Gómez-Calviño J., Navarrina F., Casteleiro M., Computer analysis of earthing systems in horizontally or vertically layered soils, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 59, pp. 149–156 (2001).
[20] Androvitsaneasa P.V., Alexandridisb K.A., Gonosa F.I., Douniasc D.G., Stathopulos I., Wavelet neural network methodology for ground resistance forecasting, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 140, pp. 288–295 (2016).
[21] Khodra H.M., Salloumb G.A., Saraivac J.T., Matosc M.A., Design of grounding systems in substations using a mixed-integer linear programming formulation, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 79, pp. 126–133 (2009).
[22] Datsios Z.G., Mikropoulos N.P., Safety performance evaluation of typical grounding configurations of MV/LV distribution substations, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 150, pp. 36–44 (2017).
[23] Jiansheng Y., Huina Y., Liping Z., Xiang C., Xinshan M., Simulation of substation grounding grids with unequal-potential, IEEE Transactions on Magnetic, vol. 36, no. 4 (2000).
[24] Meliopoulos A.P., Feng Xia, Joy E.B., Cokkinides G.J., An advanced computer model for grounding systems analysis, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 8, no. 1 (1993).
[25] Meng X., Han P., Liu Y., Lu Z., Jin T., Working temperature calculation of single-core cable by nonlinear finite element method, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 643–656 (2019).
[26] Wolnik T., Alternate computational method for induction disk motor based on 2D FEM model of cylindrical motor, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 233–244 (2020).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Roman Sikora
Przemysław Markiewicz

  1. Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowski str. 18/22, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The deviation from the ideal waveform causes disturbances and failure of end-user load equipment. Power traveling a long distance from the generation plant to the end-user leads to deterioration of its quality, and the intensive utilization of power leads to serious issues in the grid resulting in power quality problems. To make the system effective and able to meet modern requirements, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices should be installed into the grid. The interline power flow controller (IPFC) is the latest FACTS device, which compensates for both active and reactive power among multi-line systems. The converters used in the IPFC are crucial as they can be adjusted to regulate the power flow among the lines. This paper proposes a cascaded IPFC with hysteresis and proportional resonant voltage controllers. Some main drawbacks of controllers like steady-state errors and reference tracking of converters can be easily achieved by the PR controller, which makes the system efficient and can be used for a wide range of grid applications. Hysteresis and PR controllers are explained in detail in the following sections. A comparative analysis is carried out among control algorithms to choose the suitable controller which maintains stability in the system.
Go to article


[1] Wai R.J.,WangW.H., Lin C.Y., High-performance Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Generation System, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 240–250 (2008).
[2] Rahman S., Green power: What is it and where can we find it?, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 30–37 (2003).
[3] Narender Reddy N., Chandrashekar O., Srujana A., Power quality enhancement by MPC based multilevel control employed with improved particle Swarmoptimized selective harmonic elimination, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, vol. 41, no. 19, pp. 2396–2414 (2019).
[4] Tang Huiling, Wu Jiekang, Multi-objective coordination optimisation method for DGs and EVs in distribution networks, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 15–32 (2019).
[5] Narender Reddy N., Chandrasheker O., Srujana A., Power quality enhancement in micro grids by employing MPC-EKF, International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 996–999 (2018).
[6] Bauer P., Strzelecki R., Kazmierkowski M.P., Multilevel Converters, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences, vol. 65, no. 5, 563–565 (2017).
[7] Malinowski M., Cascaded multilevel converters in recent research and applications, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Technical Sciences, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 567–578 (2017).
[8] Zhang X.P., Rehtanz C., Pal B., FACTS-Devices and Applications, in: Flexible AC Transmission Systems: Modelling and Control, Power Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).
[9] Perez M.A., Messina A.R., Fuerte-Esquivel C.R., Application of FACTS devices to improve steady state voltage stability, 2000 Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, vol. 2, pp. 1115–1120 (2000).
[10] Kumar P., Application of fact devices for voltage stability in a power system, 2015 IEEE 9th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), pp. 1–5 (2015).
[11] Mohamed K.H., Rao K.S.R., Intelligent optimization techniques for optimal power flow using Interline Power Flow Controller, 2010 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 300–305 (2010).
[12] Murthy V.N.S.R., Alagappan Pandian, Analysis of capacitor voltage balance in multilevel inverter, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 12 (Special Issue 1), pp. 399–406 (2017).
[13] Prasadarao K.V.S., Krishna Rao K.V., Bala Koteswara Rao P., Abishai T., Power quality enhancement in grid connected PV systems using high step up DC-DC converter, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 720–728 (2017).
[14] Swapna Sai P., Rajasekhar G.G., Vijay Muni T., Sai Chand M., Power quality and custom power improvement using UPQC, International Journal of Engineering and Technology (UAE), vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 41–43 (2018).
[15] Seetharamudu S., Pakkiraiah B., A new converter topology designed for cascaded h bridge fifteen level inverter, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, vol. 8, iss. 6S3, pp. 792–795 (2019).
[16] Jyothi B., Venu Gopala Rao M., Performance analysis of 3-level 5-phase multilevel inverter topologies, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1696–1705 (2017).
[17] Moulali S., Muni Vijay, Subrahmanyam Y., Kesav S., A Flying Capacitor Multilevel Topology for PV System with APOD and POD Pulse Width Modulation, Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 96–101 (2018).
[18] Ilhami Colak, Ersan Kabalci, Ramazan Bayindir, Review of multilevel voltage source inverter topologies and control schemes, Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, iss. 2, pp. 1114–1128 (2011).
[19] Thumu Raghu, Reddy K., A Review on Fuzzy-GA based Controller for Power Flow Control in Grid Connected PV System, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 125–133 (2017).
[20] Babu G.S., Reddy R., Nittala R., Reddy K.S., Comparative Analysis of Control Techniques for Interline Power Flow Controller, 3rd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT) 2018, pp. 1–6 (2018).
[21] Radomski G., Control and modulation methods of voltage source converter, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 323–336 (2009).
[22] Kabzinski J., Orłowska-Kowalska T., Sikorski A., Bartoszewicz A., Adaptive, predictive and neural approaches in drive automation and control of power converters, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences Technical Sciences, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 959–962 (2020).
[23] Zhang Yonglong, An Yuejun, Wang Guangyu, Kong Xiangling, Multi motor neural PID relative coupling speed synchronous control, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 69–88 (2020).
[24] Prasadarao K.V.S., Yarra M.S., Maddi S.P.K., Comparative analysis of fuzzy and PI controller based two switch buck-boost converter for power factor correction, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 12 (Special Issue 1), pp. 294–301 (2017).
[25] Qader M.R., Identifying the optimal controller strategy for DC motors, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 101–114 (2019).
[26] Chilipi R., Al Sayari N., Al Hosani K., Beig A.R., Control scheme for grid-tied distributed generation inverter under unbalanced and distorted utility conditions with power quality ancillary services, in IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 140–149 (2016).
[27] Shen G., Zhu X., Zhang J., Xu D., A New feedback Method for PR Current Control of LCL Filter-Based Grid-Connected Inverter, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2033–2041 (2010).
[28] Chinnari M., Mounika T., Swetha K., Bharathi A., Chander A.H., Implementation of Hysteresis Voltage Control for Different Inverter Topologies, 2020 IEEE India Council International Subsections Conference (INDISCON), pp. 272–277 (2020).
[29] Tellapati A.D., Kumar M.K., A simplified hysteresis current control for cascaded converter fed switched reluctance motor, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 5095–5106 (2019).
[30] Zhang X., Wang J., Li C., Three-Phase Four-Leg Inverter Based on Voltage Hysteresis Control, 2010 International Conference on Electrical and Control Engineering, Wuhan, pp. 4482–4485 (2010).
[31] Ali S.M., Kazmierkowski M.P., Current regulation of four-leg PWM/VSI, IECON ’98, Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (Cat. No.98CH36200), Aachen, Germany, vol. 3, pp. 1853–1858 (1998).
[32] Sivaraman P., Prem P., PR controller design and stability analysis of single stage T-source inverter based solar PV system, Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 235–245 (2017).
[33] Zammit D., Spiteri Staines C., Apap M., Comparison between PI and PR current controllers in grid connected PV inverters, WASET, International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 221–226 (2014).
[34] Zhou S., Liu J., Analysis and comparison of resonant-based current controllers implemented in stationary reference frame: A complex pole-zero placement perspective, 2015 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Montreal, QC, 2015, pp. 1624–1631 (2015).
[35] Zmood D.N., Holmes D.G., Stationary frame current regulation of PWM inverters with zero steadystate error, in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 814–822 (2003).
[36] Teodorescu R., Blaabjerg F., Liserre M., Loh P.C., Proportional-resonant controllers and filters for grid-connected voltage-source converters, in IEE Proceedings – Electric Power Applications, vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 750–762 (2006).
[37] Daniel Zammit, Cyril Spiteri Staines, Maurice Apap, John Licari, Design of PR current control with selective harmonic compensators using Matlab, Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology, vol. 4, iss. 3, pp. 347–358 (2017).
[38] Oruganti H., Dash S.S., Nallaperumal C., Ramasamy S., A Proportional Resonant Controller for Suppressing Resonance in Grid Tied Multilevel Inverter, Energies, vol. 11, no. 5, p. 1024 (2018).
[39] Kavitha R., Thottungal Rani, WTHD minimisation in hybrid multilevel inverter using biogeographical based optimisation, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 187–196 (2014).
[40] Armi Faouzi, Manai Lazhar, Besbes Mongi, CHB inverter with DC-link capacitor balancing and total harmonic minimization, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 67, no. 1 (2018).
[41] Jilledi S., Comparison of Multi-Line Power Flow Control using Unified power flow controller (UPFC) and Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) in Power Transmission Systems, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 3229–3235 (2011).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sridhar Babu Gurijala
D. Ravi Kishore
Ramchandra Nittala
Rohith Reddy Godala

  1. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, AP, India
  2. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, St. Martin’s Engineering College, Dhulapally, near Kompally, Secunderabad, Telangana, India
  3. Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Food processing technologies for food preservation have been in constant development over a few decades in order to meet current consumer’s demands. Healthy competitive improvements are observed in both thermal and non-thermal food processing technology since past two decades due to technical revolution. Among these novel technologies, pulsed electric field food processing technology has shown to be a potential non-thermal treatment capable of preserving liquid foods. The high-voltage pulse generators specifically find their applications in pulsed electric field technology. So, this paper proposes a new structure of a high-voltage pulse generator with a cascaded boost converter topology. The choice of a cascaded boost converter helps in selecting low DC input voltage and hence the size and space requirement of the high-voltage pulse generator is minimized. The proposed circuit is capable of producing high-voltage pulses with flexibility of an adjusting duty ratio and frequency. The designed circuit generates a maximum peak voltage of 1 kV in the frequency range of 7.5–20 kHz and the pulse width range of 0.8–1.8 μs. Also, the impedance matching between the cascaded boost converter and the high-voltage pulse generator is found simple without further additional components. The efficiency can be improved in the circuit by avoiding low frequency transformers.
Go to article


[1] Nazni P., Shobana Devi R., Effect of Processing on the Characteristics Changes in Barnyard and Foxtail Millet, Journal of Food Processing Technology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–8 (2016).
[2] Khanam A., Platel K., Influence of domestic processing on the bioaccessibility of selenium from selected food grains and composite meals, Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1634–1639 (2016).
[3] Gabaza M., Shumoy H., Louwagie L., Muchuweti M., Vandamme P., Du Laing G., Raes K., Traditional fermentation and cooking of finger millet: Implications on mineral binders and subsequent bioaccessibility, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 68, pp. 87–94 (2018).
[4] Sunil Neelash C., Jaivir S., Suresh C., Vipul C., Vikrant K., Non-thermal techniques: Application in food industries-A review, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1507–1518 (2018).
[5] Nowosad K., Sujka M., Pankiewicz U., Kowalski R., The application of PEF technology in food processing and human nutrition, Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 58, pp. 397–411 (2020), DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04512-4.
[6] Rana Muhammad A., Xin-An Z., Zhong H., Amna S., Anees Ahmed K., Ubaid U.R., Muneeb K., Tariq M., Combined effects of pulsed electric field and ultrasound on bioactive compounds and microbial quality of grapefruit juice, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, vol. 42, no. 2 (2018), DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.13507 (2018).
[7] Ramune B., Gianpiero P., Nerijus L., Saulius S., Pranas V., Giovanna F., Application of pulsed electric field in the production of juice and extraction of bioactive compounds from blueberry fruits and their by-products, Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 5898–5905 (2015).
[8] Carbonell-Capella J.M., Buniowska M., Cortes C., Zulueta A., Frigola A., Esteve M.J., Influence of pulsed electric field processing on the quality of fruit juice beverages sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana, Food and Bioproducts Processing, vol. 101, pp. 214–222 (2017).
[9] Caminity I.M., Palgan I., Noci F., Arantxa Muñoz, Whyte P., Cronin D.A., Morgan D.J., Lyng J.G., The effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) in combination with high intensity light pulses (HILP) on Escherichia coli inactivation and quality attributes in apple juice, Innovative Food Science and Emerging, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 118–123 (2011).
[10] Morales-de la Pena M., Elez-Martinez P., Martin-Belloso O., Food Preservation by Pulsed Electric Fields: An Engineering Perspective, Food Engineering Reviews, vol. 3, pp. 94–107 (2011).
[11] Buckow R., Sieh N., Toepfl S., Pulsed electric field processing of orange juice: a review on microbial, enzymatic, nutritional and sensory quality and stability, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food safety, vol. 12, pp. 455–467 (2013).
[12] Toepfl S., Pulsed electric field food processing – Industrial equipment design and commercial applications, Stewart Postharvest Review, vol. 8, pp. 1–7 (2012).
[13] Valic B., Muriel Golzio, Mojca Pavlin, Anne Schatz, Cecile Faurie, Weaver J.C., Electroporation of Cells and Tissues, IEEE Transaction on Plasma Science, vol. 28, pp. 24–33 (2000).
[14] Toepfl S., Heinz V., Knorr D., High intensity pulsed electric fields applied for food preservation, Chemical Engineering and Processing, vol. 46, pp. 537–546 (2007).
[15] Geveke D.J., Kozempel M., Scullen O.J., Brunkhorst C., Radio frequency energy effects on microorganisms in foods, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 133–138 (2002).
[16] Geveke D.J., Brunkhorst C., Inactivation of Escherichia coli in apple juice by radio frequency electric fields, Journal of Food Science, vol. 69, pp. 134–138 (2004).
[17] Geveke D.J., Brunkhorst C., Fan X., Radio frequency electric fields processing of orange juice, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, vol. 8, pp. 549–554 (2007).
[18] Krishnaveni S., Rajini V., Diode clamped gate driver-based high voltage pulse generator for electroporation, Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, vol. 26, pp. 2374–2384 (2018).
[19] Pokryvailo A., Yankelevich Y., Shapira M., A compact source of sub gigawatt sub-nanosecond pulses, IEEE Transaction on Plasma Science, vol. 32, pp. 1909–1918 (2004).
[20] Wu Y., Liu K., Qiu J., X., Xiao H., Repetitive and high voltage Marx generator using solid-state devices, IEEE Transaction on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 14, pp. 937–940 (2007).
[21] Ramya R., Raja P.R., Gowrisree V., High Voltage Pulsed Electric Field Application Using Titanium Electrodes for Bacterial Inactivation in Unpurified Water, Japan Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 63–70 (2019).
[22] KasriN.N.F., Piah M.A.M., Adzis Z., Compact High-Voltage Pulse Generator for Pulsed Electric Field Applications: Lab-Scale Development, Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 2020, art. ID 6525483, pp. 1–12 (2020), DOI: 10.1155/2020/6525483.
[23] Flisara K., Meglica S.H., Morelj J., Golobb J., Miklavcic D., Testing a prototype pulse generator for a continuous flow system and its use for E. coli inactivation and microalgae lipid extraction, Bioelectochemistry, vol. 100, pp. 44–51 (2014).
[24] Merensky L.M., Kardo-Sysoev A., Shmilovitz D., Kesar A.S., Efficiency Study of a 2.2 kV, 1 ns, 1 MHz Pulsed Power Generator Based on a Drift-Step-Recovery Diode, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 3138–3142 (2013).
[25] Zhang Y., Liu J., Cheng X., Zhang H., Bai G., A Way for High-Voltage μs-Range Square Pulse Generation, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1125–1130 (2011).
[26] Merla C., Amari S.E., Kenaan M., Liberti M., Apollonio F., Arnaud-Cormos D., Couder V., A 10- High-Voltage Nanosecond Pulse Generator, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 4079–4085 (2010).
[27] Ndtoungou A., Hamadi A., Missanda A., Al-Haddad K., Modeling and control of a cascaded Boost Converter for a Battery Electric Vehicle, IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Conference, London, ON, Canada, pp. 182–187 (2012).
[28] Stala R., Pirog S., DC–DC boost converter with high voltage gain and a low number of switches in multisection switched capacitor topology, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 617–627 (2018), DOI: 10.24425/123667.
[29] Chen Z., Yong W., Gao W., PI and Sliding Mode Control of a Multi-Input-Multi-Output Boost-Boost Converter, WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 9, pp. 87–102 (2014).
[30] Sira-Ramirez H., Silva-Origoza R., Control design techniques in power electronics devices, Springer (2006).
[31] Aamir M., Shinwari M.Y., Design, implementation and experimental analysis of two-stage boost converter for grid connected photovoltaic system, 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, Chengdu, China, pp. 194–199 (2010).
[32] Park S., Choi S., Soft-switched CCM boost converters with high voltage gain for high power applications, IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1211–1217 (2010).
[33] Silveira G.C., Tofoli F.L., Bezerra L.D.S., Torrico-Bascope R.P., A nonisolated DC-DC boost converter with high voltage gain and balanced output voltage, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 6739–6746 (2014).
[34] Sanders J.M., Kuthi A., Wu., Y.H., Vernier P.T., Gundersen M.A., A linear, single-stage, nanosecond pulse generator for delivering intense electric fields to biological loads, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1048–1054 (2009).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

S. Krishnaveni
V. Rajini

  1. Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, India
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Economic dispatch (ED) is an essential part of any power system network. ED is howto schedule the real power outputs from the available generators to get the minimum cost while satisfying all constraints of the network. Moreover, it may be explained as allocating generation among the committed units with the most effective minimum way in accordance with all constraints of the system. There are many traditional methods for solving ED, e.g., Newton-Raphson method Lambda-Iterative technique, Gaussian-Seidel method, etc. All these traditional methods need the generators’ incremental fuel cost curves to be increasing linearly. But practically the input-output characteristics of a generator are highly non-linear. This causes a challenging non-convex optimization problem. Recent techniques like genetic algorithms, artificial intelligence, dynamic programming and particle swarm optimization solve nonconvex optimization problems in a powerful way and obtain a rapid and near global optimum solution. In addition, renewable energy resources as wind and solar are a promising option due to the environmental concerns as the fossil fuels reserves are being consumed and fuel price increases rapidly and emissions are getting higher. Therefore, the world tends to replace the old power stations into renewable ones or hybrid stations. In this paper, it is attempted to enhance the operation of electrical power system networks via economic dispatch. An ED problem is solved using various techniques, e.g., Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique and Sine-Cosine Algorithm (SCA). Afterwards, the results are compared. Moreover, case studies are executed using a photovoltaic-based distributed generator with constant penetration level on the IEEE 14 bus system and results are observed. All the analyses are performed on MATLAB software.
Go to article


[1] Zee-Lee Gaing, Particle swarm optimization to solving the economic dispatch considering the generator limits, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 18, pp. 1187–1195 (2003).
[2] Nidul Sinha, Chakrabarti R., Chattopadhyay P.K., Evolutionary programming techniques for economic load dispatch, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol. 7, iss. 1, pp. 83–94 (2003).
[3] Jeyakumar D., Jayabarathi T., Raghunathan T., Particle swarm optimization for various types of economic dispatch problems, International Journal of Electrical Power Energy System, vol. 36, pp. 42–28 (2006).
[4] Leandro dos Santos Coelho, Chu-Sheng Lee, Solving economic load dispatch problems in power system using chaotic and Gaussian particle swarm optimization approaches, Elsevier, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems (IJEPES), vol. 30, iss. 5, pp. 297–307 (2008).
[5] Vishnu Prasad, Amita Mahor, Saroj Rangnekar, Economic dispatch using particle swarm optimization: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 13, pp. 2134–2141 (2009).
[6] Kumar C., Alwarsamy T., Dynamic Economic Dispatch – A Review of Solution Methodologies, European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 517–537 (2011).
[7] Deep K., Bansal J.C., Solving Economic Dispatch Problems with Valve-point Effects using Particle Swarm Optimization, J. UCS, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1842–1852 (2012).
[8] Timothy Ganesan, Pandian Vasant, Irraivan Elamvazuthy, A hybrid PSO approach for solving nonconvex optimization problems, Archives of Control Sciences, vol. 22 (LVIII) (2012).
[9] Jie Meng, Geng-yin Li, Shi-jun Cheng, Economic Dispatch for Power Generation System Incorporating Wind and Photovoltaic Power, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 441, pp. 263–267 (2014).
[10] Kumar C., Anbarasan A., Karpagam M., Alwarsamy T., Artificial Intelligent Techniques in Economic Power Dispatch Problems, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 23243–23254 (2015).
[11] Zeinab G. Hassan, Ezzat M., Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz, Solving Unit Commitment and Economic Load Dispatch Problems Using Modern Optimization Algorithms, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 10–19 (2017).
[12] Quande Q., Cheng S., Xianghua C., Solving non-convex/non-smooth economic load dispatch problems via an enhanced particle swarm optimization, Applied Soft Computing, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 229–242 (2017).
[13] Sanjoy R., The maximum likelihood optima for an economic load dispatch in presence of demand and generation variability, Energy, vol. 147, pp. 915–923 (2018).
[14] Jagat Kishore Pattanaik, Mousumi Basu, Deba Prasad Dash, Dynamic economic dispatch: a comparative study for differential evolution, particle swarm optimization, evolutionary programming, genetic algorithm, and simulated annealing, Pattanaik et al., Journal of Electrical Systems and Information Technology (2019).
[15] Bishwajit Dey, Shyamal Krishna Roy, Biplab Bhattacharyya, Solving multi-objective economic emission dispatch of a renewable integrated microgrid using latest bio-inspired algorithms, Engineering Science and Technology, International Journal 22, pp. 55–66 (2019).
[16] Aissa Benchabira, Mounir Khiat, A hybrid method for the optimal reactive power dispatch and the control of voltages in an electrical energy network, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 535–551 (2019).
[17] Patel N., Bhattacharjee K., A comparative study of economic load dispatch using sine cosine algorithm, Scientia Iranica International Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1467–1480 (2020).
[18] Tankut Yalcinoz, Halis Altun, Murat Uzam, Economic dispatch solution using a genetic algorithm based on arithmetic crossover, IEEE Porto Power Tech Proceedings (2001).
[19] Anurag Gupta, Himanshu Anand, Analysis of scheduling of solar sharing for economic/environmental dispatch using PSO, INDICON IEEE (2015).
[20] Hafez A.I., Zawbaa H.M., Emary E., Hassanien A.E., Sine cosine optimization algorithm for feature selection, International Symposium on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA) (2016).
[21] Ajay Wadhawan, Preeti Verma, Sonia Grover, Himanshu Anand, Economic Environmental Dispatch with PV Generation Including Transmission Losses using PSO, IEEE Power India International Conference (PIICON) (2016).
[22] Suid M.H., Ahmad M.A., Ismail M.R.T.R., Ghazali M.R., Irawan A., Tumari M.Z., An Improved Sine Cosine Algorithm for Solving Optimization Problems, IEEE Conference on Systems, Process and Control (ICSPC) (2018).
[23] Jiajun Liu, Bo Song,Ye Li, An Optimum Dispatching for Photovoltaic-thermal Mutual-Complementing Power Plant Based on the Improved Particle Swarm Knowledge Algorithm, IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA) (2018).
[24] Kennedy J., Particle swarm optimization, Encyclopedia in Machine Learning, pp. 760–766 (2010).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Abrar Mohamed Hafiz
M. Ezzat Abdelrahman
Hesham Temraz

  1. Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


In this paper an attempt has been made towards the design and evaluation of a solar parabolic trough collector (PTC) system integrated with a conventional oil boiler (COB) to increase the energy utilization effectiveness and reduce the environmental emission of the existing conventional oil boiler in the Kombolcha textile factory, in Ethiopia. The factory uses 8500 ton/annum of heavy fuel oil to generate 26 ton/hour of pressurized hot water at 140°C temperature which causes an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so the solar parabolic trough collector hot water generation system will be an appropriate solution for this application. Based on the available annual solar radiation, estimates of the solar fraction, solar energy unit price and system pay-back period have been carried out. The proposed system has the potential to save 1055.9 ton/year of fuel oil. The unit cost of PTC solar energy is estimated to be 0.0088 $/kWh and the payback period of the plant is five years. Since the unit price of oil energy (0.0424 $/kWh) is much greater than the unit price of solar energy by a substantial margin (0.033 $/kWh) in Ethiopia, therefore the water heating system by
a solar parabolic trough collector is a feasible alternative to heating by a conventional oil boiler.
Go to article


[1] Sharew Anteneh, Solar Energy Assessment in Ethiopia: Modelling and Measurement, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, vol. 12, iss. 4, pp. 135–145 (2007).
[2] Mekuannint Mesfin, Modelling, Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Power Generation System, Addis Ababa University, vol. 12, iss. 4, pp. 65–75 (2009).
[3] Robert A., Parabolic Trough Solar Technology, Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Meyers (ed.) (2012), DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0851-3.
[4] Derese T. Nega, Getachew S. Tibba et al., Software Development for Design, Simulation and Sizing of Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant (EthioSolA), Proceedings of the IEEE (2015).
[5] Yahusa I., Rufai Y.A., Tanimu L., Design Construction and Testing of Parabolic Solar Oven, vol. 12, iss. 4 (2016), DOI: 10.4172/2168-9873.1000212.
[6] Alhassan Salami Tijani, Ashraf M.S., Bin Roslan, Simulation Analysis of Thermal Losses of Parabolic trough Solar Collector in Malaysia Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, Procedia Technology 15, pp. 842–849 (2014).
[7] Caiyan Qin, Joong Bae Kim et al., Comparative Analysis of Direct-Absorption Parabolic-Trough Solar Collectors Considering Concentric Nanofluid Segmentation, vol. 44, iss. 5, pp. 4015–4025 (2020), DOI: 10.1002/Er.5165.
[8] Zhiyong Wu, Shidong Li et al., Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer characteristics of parabolic trough receiver, Applied Energy, vol. 113, pp. 902–911 (2014).
[9] Hachicha A.A., Rodríguez I., Capdevila R., Oliva A., Heat transfer analysis and numerical simulation of a parabolic trough solar collector, Applied Energy, vol. 111, pp. 581–592 (2013).
[10] Bellos E., Tzivanidis C., Antonopoulos K.A., A Detailed Working Fluid Investigation for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 114, pp. 374–386 (2017).
[11] Badreddine El Ghazzani, Diego Martinez Plaza et al., Thermal Plant Based on Parabolic Trough Collectors for Industrial Process Heat Generation in Morocco, Renewable Energy, vol. 113, pp. 1261–1275 (2017).
[12] Dagim Kebede, Design and analysis of solar thermal system for hot water supply to Minilk hospital new building, Addis Ababa University, vol. 8, iss. 1, pp. 5–14 (2016).
[13] Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI), Solar Thermal Energy for Industrial Uses (2011).
[14] El Jai M-C., Chalqi F-Z., A Modified Model for Parabolic Trough Solar Receiver, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), e-ISSN: 2320-0847 p ISSN: 2320-0936, vol. 2, iss. 5, pp. 200–211 (2019).
[15] Mutlak F.A.A., Baha T. Chiad, Naseer K. Kasim, Design and Fabrication of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Thermal Energy Applications, Republic of Iraq Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research University of Baghdad College of Science, vol. 2, iss. 1, pp. 165–175 (2011).
[16], accessed 20/11/2018.
[17] Michael Geyer, Eckhard Lüpfert et al., EUROTROUGH Parabolic Trough Collector Developed for Cost Efficient Solar Power Generation, (2015).
[18] Michael Geyer, Eckhard Lupfert et al., EUROTROUGH Parabolic Trough Collector Developed for Cost Efficient Solar Power Generation, 11th SolarPACES International Symposium on Concentrated Solar Power and Chemical Energy Technologies (2002).
[19] Lourdes A. Barcia, Rogelio Peon Menendez et al., Dynamic Modelling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, Energies Published; eISSN 1996-1073, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 13361–13377 (2015).
[20] Holman J.P., Heat Transfer Tenth Edition, Department of Mechanical Engineering Southern Methodist University (eBook) (2010).
[21] Christos Tzivanidis, Evangelos Bellos, The use of parabolic trough collectors for solar cooling – A case study for Athens climate, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 403–413 (2016).
[22] Allouhi A., Benzakour Amine M., Kousksou T., Jamil A., Lahrech K., Yearly performance of lowenthalpy parabolic trough collectors in MENA region according to different sun-tracking strategies, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 128, pp. 1404–1419 (2018).
[23] Addisu Bekele, Large Scale Application of Solar Water Heating System in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University (2007).
[24] Yidnekachew Messele, Thermal Analysis, Design and Experimental Investigation of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector, Addis Ababa University (2012).
[25] Duffie J.A., Beckman W.A., Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 4th Edition, ISBN: 978-0-470- 87366-3 (2013).
[26] Abhishek Saxena, Ghanshyam Srivastava, Potential and Economics of Solar Water Heating, MIT International Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97–104 (2012).
[27] Dejen Assefa, Techno-Economic Assessment of Parabolic Trough Steam Generation for Hospital, Addis Ababa University, vol. 9, iss. 2, pp. 35–39 (2011).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Mustefa Jibril Taha
Fiseha Bogale Kibret
Venkata Ramayya
Balewgize Amare Zeru

  1. Control Engineering, Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia
  2. Sustainable Energy Engineering, Kombolcha Institue of Technology (KIoT), Wollo University, P.O.Box 208, Kombolcha, Ethiopia
  3. Sustainable Energy Engineering, Jimma Institue of Technology (JiT), Jimma University, Ethiopia
  4. Thermal Engineering, Jimma Institue of Technology (JiT), Jimma University, Ethiopia
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


It is not easy to make the insulators of the railway catenary for the dry and cold environment of the icy Qinghai-Tibet plateau, without causing serious ice-related flashover accidents. To study the operating status of catenary icing insulators, a two-dimensional icing model of catenary cantilever insulators was established based on the winter environmental characteristics of the Golmud station on the Qinghai-Tibet Railway. Compared different directions of ice growth, the spatial electric field distribution, and surface temperature distribution characteristics of icing insulatorswere analyzed by multi-physical field coupling simulation. The results show that as the thickness of the ice layer increases and the length of the icicle increases, the field intensity of the insulator gradually increases, and the surface temperature continues to rise. When the ice edge grows vertically downward, the electric field intensity of the insulator is the smallest, and the electric field intensity is the largest when the ice edge grows horizontally. Although the surface temperature of the insulator will rise with the increase of icing degree, it is lower than the freezing point and will not have a great impact on insulation performance. Secondly, when the cantilever insulator is arranged obliquely, the increase in the inclination angle will cause the electric field to increase and the temperature to rise slightly, so the inclination angle of the oblique cantilever should be reduced as much as possible during installation. Finally, the insulator with better insulation performance is obtained by optimizing the structure of the flat cantilever insulator.
Go to article


[1] Meng Hong, Qinghai-Tibet Railway: The Magical "Sky Road" on the Roof of theWorld, Party Member’s Digest, no. 11, pp. 38–40 (2019).
[2] Fofana I., Farzaneh M. et al., Dynamic Modeling of Flashover Process on Insulator under Atmospheric Icing Conditions, 2001 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Toronto, Canada, pp. 605–608 (2001).
[3] Tavakoli C., Farzaneh M., Fofana I. et al., Dynamics and Modeling of AC Arc on Surface of Ice, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 13, no. 06, pp. 1278–1283 (2006).
[4] Zhao Jiayao, Study on AC Flashover Characteristics of Nature Icing Suspension Insulator (Short) Strings, PhD Thesis, Chongqing University, Chongqing (2019).
[5] Zhang Zhijin, Cheng Yang, Zhao Jiayao et al., AC Flashover Performances of Artificial Icing and Nature Icing for XP-160 Insulator String, High Voltage Engineering, vol. 44, no. 09, pp. 2777–2784 (2018).
[6] Ciesielka W., Gołas A. et al., Reliability improvement of power distribution line exposed to extreme icing in Poland, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 05, pp. 1113–1125 (2020).
[7] Mhaguen N., Development of Dynamic Models for Predicting the Critical Flashover Voltage of Insulators Covered with Ice Based on Finite Element Method, Thesis of Master’s Degree, University of Québec, Canada (2011).
[8] Volat C., Farzaneh M. et al., Improved FEM models of one- and two-arcs to predict AC critical flashover voltage of ice-covered insulators, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 18, no. 02, pp. 393–400 (2011).
[9] Lu Jiazheng, Xie Pengkang et al., Electric field simulation and sheds optimization of anti- icing and anti- lightning insulator under heavy icing condition, Electric Power Automation Equipment, vol. 38, no. 03, pp. 199–204 (2018).
[10] Tu Yewei, Xia Qiangfeng, Simulation of Space Electric Field Distribution Around 220 kV Porcelain Insulator String (XP-160) and the Influencing Factors, High Voltage Apparatus, vol. 48, no. 03, pp. 67–74 (2012).
[11] Qi Guiming, Wang fake, He Haicheng et al., Surface and low altitude wind field characteristics in Golmud city, Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, vol. 24, no. 06, pp. 118–120 (2010).
[12] Hu Yuyao, Study on Dynamic Model for Icing with Wet Growth Process and Ice Flashover Voltage Prediction of Suspension Insulators, Master Thesis, Chongqing University, Chongqing (2017).
[13] Luo Jian, The Optimization of the System Parameters and Cantilever and Positioning Device of Overhead Contact System of High-speed Railway, PhD Thesis, Southwest JiaotongUniversity, Chengdu (2017).
[14] Zhang Yuexin, Study on Catenary’s Construction Techniques in High-speed Electric Railway, PhD Thesis, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (2006).
[15] Sharma R.P., Seema Tinker et al. Effect of Convective Heat and Mass Conditions in Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow with Joule Heating and Thermal Radiation, International Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering, vol. 25, no. 03 (2020).
[16] Liao Jiajun, Yang Lin, Hao Yanpeng, Simulation of Electric Field for 110 kV Iced Composite Insulator in Melting Period, High Voltage Apparatus, vol. 51, no. 03, pp. 47–54 (2015), DOI: 10.13296/ j.l001-1609.hva.2015.03.008.
[17] Ravisha M., Raghunatha K.R., Mamatha A.L., B oundary effects on electrothermal convection in a dielectric fluid layer, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 3–19 (2019).
[18] Van Brunt R.J., Stochastic properties of partial-discharge phenomena, Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions, vol. 26, iss. 5 (1991), DOI: 10.1109/14.99099.
[19] An Dawei, Study on Needle-plate corona Discharge and Migration Characteristics of Ion Space Charge, PhD Thesis, Chongqing University, Chongqing (2017).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Sihua Wang
Junjun Wang
Lijun Zhou
Long Chen
Lei Zhao

  1. Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The in-wheel motor is installed in wheels, and road excitation acts on the in-wheel motor directly through a wheel, which affects the flow field characteristics of the motor’s liquid cooling system, and affects the thermal field characteristics of the in-wheel motor. Aiming at this problem, the in-wheel motor drive system is taken as the research object in this paper. Firstly, the heat flow coupling analysis model of the in-wheel motor drive system is established by using the heat flow coupling theory. Then the vibration response of in-wheel motor stator and shell under different road excitation obtained from the previous study is taken as the load. Finally, thermal field characteristics of the water-cooled the in-wheel motor under different working conditions are studied, and the influence law of different speed and road grades on the thermal field characteristics is obtained. The results show that under the road excitation, the maximum temperature of each component of the in-wheel motor decreases due to the vibration effect of road excitation on the flow field of the cooling system, and the decrease of the stator and winding is the most obvious. Additionally, the higher the speed, the greater the road roughness coefficient, the greater the temperature drop of each component of the in-wheel motor. However, the thermal field distribution of local parts of the motor is relatively uneven under road excitation, which leads to greater thermal stress of the local parts and increases the risk of motor damage.
Go to article


[1] Chen Yi, Yao Yihua, Lu Qinfen, Huang Xiaoyan,Ye Yunyue, Thermal modeling and analysis of doublesided water-cooled permanent magnet linear synchronous machines, COMPEL-The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 695–712 (2016).
[2] Qiu Hongbo, Zhang Yong, Yang Cunxiang, Yi Ran, Performance analysis and comparison of PMSM with concentrated winding and distributed winding, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 303–317 (2020).
[3] Kim S.C., Kim W., Kim M.S., Cooling performance of 25 kW in-wheel motor for electric vehicles, International Journal of Automotive Technology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 559–567 (2013).
[4] Karnavas Y.L., Chasiotis I.D., Peponakis E.L., Cooling system design and thermal analysis of an electric vehicle’s in-wheel PMSM, Proceedings of the 2016 XXII International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 1439–1445 (2016).
[5] Ding Yonggen, Xu Tianji, Zhang Nan, Hai Lu, Analysis of Drive Motor Housing Cooling Structure Design and Thermal Simulation of New Energy Vehicle, Auto Time, vol. 16, pp. 71–72 (2020).
[6] Zhao Lanping, Jiang Congxi, Xu Xin, Yang Zhigang, The Effects of Oil Cooling on the Temperature Field of Out-rotor In-wheel Motor Under Vehicle Operation Environment, Automotive Engineering, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 373–380 (2019).
[7] Gao Panpan, Study on Cooling and Heat Transfer about Electrical Transmission System of Wheeled Vehicle, Master Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (2015).
[8] Funieru B., Binder A., Thermal design of a permanent magnet motor used for gearless railway traction, Proceedings of the 2008 34thAnnual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Orlando, FL, USA, pp. 2061–2066 (2008).
[9] Chien C.H., Jang J.Y., 3-D numerical and experimental analysis of a built-in motorized high-speed spindle with helical water cooling channel, Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 28, no. 17–18, pp. 2327–2336 (2008).
[10] Zeng Jinling, Xu Yu, Han Yepeng, Li Guanhua, Zhang Qun, Cooling Simulation Analysis Based on Multi-Field Coupling Technology of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1246–1251+1256 (2014).
[11] Huang Z., Marquez F., Alakula M., Yuan J., Characterization and application of forced cooling channels for traction motors in HEVs, Proceedings of the 2012 XXth International Conference on Electrical Machines, Marseille, France, pp. 1212–1218 (2012).
[12] Zheng Ping, Liu R., Thelin P., Nordlund E., Sadarangani C., Research on the Cooling System of a 4QT Prototype Machine Used for HEV, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 61–67 (2008).
[13] Tan Di,Wang Qiang, Modeling and Simulation of the Vibration Characteristics of the In-Wheel Motor Driving Vehicle Based on Bond Graph, Shock and Vibration, vol. 1, pp. 1–14 (2016).
[14] Li Donghe, Analysis on Temperature Field of Oil-Cooled Motor Used in Vehicles, Small and Special Electrical Machines, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 37–40 (2016).
[15] Song Fan, Research on heating and cooling of in-wheel motor drive system, Master Thesis, Department of Transportation and Vehicle Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo (2019).
[16] Weili Li, Shoufa Li, Ying Xie, Stator-rotor Coupled Thermal Field Numerical Calculation of Induction Motors and Correlated Factors Sensitivity Analysis, Proceedings of the CSEE, vol. 24, pp. 85–91 (2007).
[17] Chai F., Tang Y., Pei Y. et al., Temperature Field Accurate Modeling and Cooling Performance Evaluation of Direct-Drive Outer-Rotor Air-Cooling In-Wheel Motor, Energies, vol. 10, no. 9, p. 818 (2016).
[18] Lei Liu, The Study of Thermal Characteristics in Various Conditions and Cooling System of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Pure Electric Vehicle, Hefei University of Technology, Master Thesis (2015).
[19] Lin Maocheng, Zhao Jihai, GB 7031-1987 Vehicle vibration input - pavement flatness representation method, Standard Press of China (1987).
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Jie Feng
Di Tan
Meng Yuan

  1. Shandong University of Technology, School of Transportation and Vehicle Engineering, 266 Xincun West Road, Zhangdian District, Shandong Province, Zibo, China
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The paper presents a series of designed microstrip antennas with different gain and width radiation characteristics and intended for use in Wi-Fi systems. These antennas in a multilayer system were analyzed with the use of computer programs, and then the parameters and characteristics of these antennas were measured. At the same time, to check the correctness of work, additional measurements of the temperature of the radiators were used with a thermal imaging camera. The obtained results were compared with the results of calculations and measurements. They show high compliance with both calculations and measurements. At the same time, thermovision measurements show the weaknesses of the designed power lines.
Go to article


[1] Sharma R., Mithilesh Kumar, Dual band planar microstrip antenna for 2.5/5.8 GHz wireless cellular applications, International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 90–96 (2013).
[2] Nelson I.O., Ademola A.Y., Patch antenna array feed design for a dish antenna, International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 261–266 (2013).
[3] Maloney J.G., Smith G.S., Scott W.R., Accurate computation of radiation from simple antenas using finite – difference time domain method, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 38 (1990).
[4] Ghaderi B., Parhizgar N., Resource allocation in MIMO systems specific to radio communication, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 91–100 (2019).
[5] Parhizgar N., A new mutual coupling compensation method for receiving antenna array-based DOA estimation, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 67, no. 2 (2018).
[6] Bielecki Z.,Rogalski A., Optical signals detection, Scientific and Technical Publishing, Warsaw(2001).
[7] MinkinaW., Thermovision measurements – instruments and methods, Publishing House of the Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa (2004).
[8] Balanis C.A., Antenna theory, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2005).
[9] Fang D.G., Antenna theory and microstrip antennas, CRC Press (2010).
[10] Lo Y.T., Lee S.W., Antenna Handbook, Antenna Theory, vol. 2 (1988).
[11] Taflowe A., Computational electrodynamics Finite – Difference Time Domain, Artech House, Boston (1995).
[12] Wnuk M., Analysis of radiating structures located on a multilayer dielectric, Warsaw, MUT (1999).
[13] Długosz T., Mutual influence of the TEM I transmission line of the tested object, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Wrocław (2007).
[14] Keshavarz S., Nozhat N., Dual-band Wilkinson power divider based on composite right/left-handed transmission lines, 13th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON) 2016, DOI: 10.1109/ECTICon.2016.7561268.
[15] Trikas P.A., Balanis C.A., Finite – difference time – domain technique for radiation by horn antennas, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium Digest, vol. 3 (1991).
[16] Gizem Toroglu, Levent Sevgi, Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) matlab codes for first- and second-order em differential equations, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 221–239 (2014), DOI: 10.1109/MAP.2014.6837093

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Marian Wnuk

  1. Military University of Technology, Poland
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Production deviations have a remarkable effect on the radiated sound of electrical machines, introducing additional signal components besides the fundamental field waves which significantly change and enrich the subjectively perceived sound characteristic. In literature these harmonics are mainly traced back to dynamic eccentricity, which modulates the fundamental fieldwaves. In this paper a thorough mechanic and electromagnetic analysis of a modern, well-constructed traction drive (permanent magnet synchronous machine) is performed to showthat for this typical rotor configuration dynamic eccentricity is negligible. Instead, deviations in the rotor magnetization are shown to be the dominant cause for vibration harmonics.
Go to article


[1] Nahlaoui M.A., Steins H., Kulig S., Exnowski S., Comparison of numerically determined noise of a 290 kW induction motor using FEM and measured acoustic radiation, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 62, pp. 195–207 (2013), DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0015.
[2] Gieras J.F., Wang C., Cho Lai J., Noise of polyphase electric motors, CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group (2006).
[3] Hu Y., Wei H., Chen H., Sun W., Zhao S., Li L., Vibration Study of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Base on Static Eccentricity Model, 22nd International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Harbin, China, pp. 1–5 (2019), DOI: 10.1109/ICEMS.2019.8922162.
[4] LiY.,Wu H.,Xu X., CaiY., Sun X., Analysis on electromechanical coupling vibration characteristics of in-wheel motor in electric vehicles considering air gap eccentricity, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 851–862 (2019), DOI: 10.24425/bpasts.2019.130882.
[5] Lundin U., Wolfbrandt A., Method for Modeling Time-Dependent Nonuniform Rotor/Stator Configurations in Electrical Machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 45, iss. 7, pp. 2976–2980 (2009), DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2009.2015052.
[6] Zhang M., Macdonald A., Tseng K.-J., Burt G.M., Magnetic Equivalent Circuit Modeling for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine under Eccentricity Fault, 48th International Universities’ Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Dublin, Ireland, pp. 1–6 (2013), DOI: 10.1109/UPEC.2013.6715044.
[7] Ebrahimi B.M., Faiz J., Roshtkhari M.J., Static-, Dynamic-, and Mixed- Eccentricity Fault Diagnoses in Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors, IEEE Transactions on industrial electronics, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 4727–4739 (2009), DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2009.2029577.
[8] Rosero J.A., Cusido J., Garcia A., Ortega J.A., Romeral L., Broken Bearings and Eccentricity Fault Detection for a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, 32nd Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics (IECON), Paris, France, pp. 964–969 (2006), DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2006.347599.
[9] Ilamparithi T., Nandi S., Saturation independent detection of dynamic eccentricity fault in salient-pole synchronous machines, IEEE International Symposium on Diagnostics for Electric Machines, Power Electronics and Drives (SDEMPED), Valencia, Spain, pp. 336–341 (2013), DOI: 10.1109/DEMPED.2013.6645737. [10] Goktas T., Zafarani M., Akin B., Discernment of Broken Magnet and Static Eccentricity Faults in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 31, iss. 2, pp. 578–587 (2016).
[11] Coenen I., van der Giet M., Hameyer K., Manufacturing Tolerances: Estimation and Prediction of Cogging Torque Influenced by Magnetization Faults, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 48, iss. 5, pp. 1932–1936 (2012), DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2011.2178252.
[12] Gasparin L., Fiser R., Cogging torque sensitivity to permanent magnet tolerance combinations, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 62, pp. 449–461 (2013), DOI: 10.2478/aee-2013-0036.
[13] International Organization for Standardization, ISO 1940-1: Mechanical vibration — Balance quality requirements for rotors in a constant (rigid) state, Geneva, Switzerland (2003).
[14], accessed March 2020.
[15] Henrotte F., Felden M., van der Giet M., Hameyer K., Electromagnetic force computation with the Eggshell method, 14th International Symposium on Numerical Field Calculation in Electrical Engineering (IGTE), Graz, Austria (2010).
[16] Herold T., Franck D., Schröder M., Böhmer S., Hameyer K., Transientes Simulationsmodell für die akustische Bewertung elektrischer Antriebe, e & i Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 55–64 (2016).

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Markus Jaeger
Pascal Drichel
Michael Schröder
Joerg Berroth
Georg Jacobs
Kay Hameyer

  1. Institute of Electrical Machines (IEM), RWTH Aachen University, Germany
  2. Institute of Systems Engineering and Machine Elements (MSE), RWTH Aachen University, Germany

Authors and Affiliations

Marian Łukaniszyn
Andrzej Demenko

  1. Technical University of Opole, 76 Prószkowska Street, 45–276 Opole, Poland
  2. Poznan University of Technology 3A Piotrowo Street, 60–965 Poznan, Poland

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

Manuscript submission:

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically on Editorial System.

Submission of paper to the Archives of Electrical Engineering is understood to imply that the article is original, unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. All articles will be reviewed. Since 2013, Authors wishing to use the facility of colour printing should consult the editors.


Microsoft Word is recommended as a standard word processor to prepare the paper to the AEE journal. If you use the LaTex format, please transfer your document to Microsoft Word and then use Template AEE.

While editing your paper, make sure that all the mathematical characters (symbols, identifiers, variables, vectors, axis marks, etc.) have the required shape, thickness, and slant kept throughout the whole article. The same appearance of a given mathematic character must be retained regardless of its place (text, equations, tables or figures).

The articles that don’t conform to the above will not be processed and published.

The reviewing process:

Each paper submitted for publication in Archives of Electrical Engineering is subjected to the following review procedure:

a) the paper is reviewed by the editor in chief or guest editor for general suitability for publication in AEE

b) if it is judged suitable two reviewers are selected and a double blind peer review process takes place

c) based on the recommendations of the reviewers, the editor then decides whether the paper should be accepted in its present form, revised or rejected

d) the author(s) is(are) informed by e-mail on the results of the reviewing procedure.

The papers are published on average within 3 months after acceptance.

Requirements for preparation of manuscripts:

The manuscript submitted for publication should have no less than 12 pages and no more than 16 pages. In the case of the manuscript longer than 16 pages, please contact the AEE Editorial Board before submitting your paper. The manuscripts, written in UK English, should be typed using Template AEE according to the following instructions and should include: a title page with the title of a manuscript, a short title; abstract; key words, text; list of references. A DOI number as well as received and revised data will be completed by Editor. When you open Template.doc, select "Print Layout" from the "View" menu in the menu bar (View > Print Layout). Then type over sections of Template.doc or cut and paste from another document and then use markup styles (Home > Styles). For example, the style at this point in the document is "main text").

All papers submitted for publication are assessed on the basis of the mutual anonymity rule as to the names of reviewers and authors. Authors' names and affiliations should not appear in the attached text/tables/figures.

If English is not your first language, ask an English-speaking colleague to proofread your manuscript. The manuscripts that fail to meet basic standards of literacy are likely to be immediately declined or after the language assessment, sent to the authors for linguistic improvement.

The manuscripts are published on average within 3 months after their acceptance.

Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Leave some open space around your figures.

The AEE journal publishes an ORCID for all authors. You will need a registered ORCID in order to submit your paper for peer review. ORCID registration is free and only takes a minute. Please note that ORCIDs will be added in the course of the author's proofreads.


The pages must be numbered consecutively. Articles should be divided into numbered sections, and if necessary subsections, preferably: Introduction, Material, Methods, Results, Conclusion and References. Any special characters (e.g. Greek, script, etc.) should be named in the margin where the character first occurs in the text. Names of species are to be accentuated with wavy underlining (italics). Equations should be numbered serially (1), (2), ... on the right side of the page. Footnotes should be avoided, if required, they should be used only for brief notes which do not fit well into the text. Figures and tables have to be included into the text. If table is typed on a separate page its position in the text should be marked. Abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text.


Please use the MathML editor as well as MathType editor to build an equation in your manuscript.


Equations should be typed within the text, centred, and should be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Their numbers should be typed in parentheses, flush right. Equations should be referred to in text, e.g. (1), except at the beginning of a sentence: "Equation (1) is ...". All symbols appearing in equations have to be defined in the text, before or just after the equation.

If the symbols are written in Times New Roman use italic fonts. Symbols of vectors and matrices should be written in bold fonts. Do not italicize Greek fonts and mathematical symbols like e.g.: the derivative symbol d, max, min, etc. The indices of symbols that are indices themselves should be written in a clear manner.

Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Please keep the same font in the formulas and text.

Unit Symbols, Abbreviations:

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.

Si units are recommended for use in formulas, drawings and tables., for example the SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. Apply the center dot to separate compound units.

Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: "Wb/m2" or "webers per square meter," not "webers/m2." Spell units when they appear in text: "...a few henries…", not "...a few H…".

Use a zero before decimal points: "0.25," not ".25." Use "cm3," not "cc."

Unit Symbols, SI Prefixes as well as Abbreviations should be writing in accordance with the IEEE standard

Tables, figures (illustrations) and captions:

The illustrations (line diagrams and photographs) should be suitable for direct reproduction. The lettering as well the details should have proportional dimensions to maintain their legibility after the usual reduction. All illustrations should be numbered consecutively (Fig. X). Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals.

All figures, figure captions, and tables in the text must be inserted into the correct places.

Figures, photos, tables or other parts of a manuscript that have previously appeared in another publication or are not the property of the authors must be properly acknowledged in the manuscript. Permission to republish these items must be obtained by the corresponding author from a person or institution holding the copyright, usually the publisher.

Authors are requested to send figures (diagrams, line drawings and photographic images) in separate computer files. JPG, PNG or TIF are the recommended file formats. Photographs, colour and greyscale figures should be at least at a resolution of 400dpi. Linear, including tables should be at a minimum of 600dpi.

All colour figures should be generated in the RGB or CMYK colour space, while greyscale images in the greyscale colour space.

When preparing your figures/graphics etc., we suggest the use of the Arial 8 point font for axis numbers and Arial 9 point font for axis names. Figures/graphics etc. can be prepared in one of two proposed ways - see Template AEE.

Tables are numbered with Arabic numerals. Use 9 point Times New Roman for the title of the table and 9 point Times New Roman for the filling of the table (9 in the case of symbols with subscripts).

AEE journal allows an author to publish color figures in e-version at no charge, and automatically convert them to grayscale for print versions. Authors wishing to use the facility of color printing should consult the editors.


A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

Please provide name(s) and initials of author(s), the title of the manuscript, editors (if any), the title of the journal or book, a volume number, the page range, and finally the year of publication in brackets.

You can use the rules presented on the site: IEEE standard.

Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.

Fees for printing the papers in Archives of Electrical Engineering:

AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

Abstracting & Indexing:

Archives of Electrical Engineering is covered by the following services:

  • Arianta
  • Baidu Scholar
  • BazTech
  • Celdes
  • CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastucture)
  • DOAJ
  • EBSCO - TOC Premie
  • EBSCO (relevant databases)
  • EBSCO Discovery Service
  • Elsevier - Compendex
  • Elsevier - Engineering Village
  • Elsevier - SCOPUS
  • Genamics JournalSeek
  • Google Scholar
  • ICI Journals Master List
  • Inspec
  • J-Gate
  • Naviga (Softweco)
  • POL-Index
  • Primo Central (ExLibris)
  • ProQuest - Advanced Technologies Database with Aerospace
  • ProQuest - Electronics and Communications Abstracts
  • ProQuest - Engineering Journals
  • ProQuest - High Tech Research Database
  • ProQuest - Illustrata: Technology
  • ProQuest - SciTech Journals
  • ProQuest - Technology Journals
  • ProQuest - Technology Research Database
  • SCImago (SJR)
  • Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest)
  • TDOne (TDNet)
  • TEMA Technik und Management
  • Thomson Reuters - Emerging Sources Citation Index
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb
  • WorldCat (OCLC)

Preparation of manuscript for Archives of Electrical Engineering (AEE)

AEE License to publish

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more