Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering


Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 March

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One of important methods used for diagnostics of a transformer’s active part is Frequency Response Analysis (FRA). It allows to determine the mechanical condition of windings, their displacements, deformations and electric faults, as well as some problems with internal leads and connections, core and bushings. Still pending problem is interpretation of measurements results. One of approaches is application of computer modeling to simulate various failure modes and connected with them changes in FRA response. The paper presents two types of models, one based on lumped parameters with RLC elements, and one based on distributed parameters with TLM method. Both methods give similar results, comparable to real measurements of simulated coil.

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Authors and Affiliations

K.M. Gawrylczyk
S. Banaszak
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The minimum energy control problem for the positive continuous-time linear systems with bounded inputs is formulated and solved. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solution to the problem are established. A procedure for solving of the problem is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Kaczorek
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The classic relationships concerning the harmonic content in the air gap field of three-phase machines are presented in form of series of rotating waves. The same approach is applied to modeling of permanent magnet motors with fractional phase windings. All main reasons of non-sinusoidal shape of flux density distribution, namely, magnets’ shape and their placement, slotting, magnetic saturation and eccentricity are also related to their counterparts in modal-frequency spectrum. The Fourier 2D spectrum of time-stepping finite element solution is confronted with results of measurements, with special attention paid to accuracy of both methods.

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Authors and Affiliations

Pawel Witczak
Witold Kubiak
Marcin Lefik
Jacek Szulakowski
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To study the principle of loss and heat at the end region of large 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator, 3D transient electromagnetic field and 3D steady temperature field finite element (FE) models of the end region are established respectively. Considering the factors such as rotor motion, core non-linearity and time-varying of electromagnetic field, the anisotropic heat conductivity and different heat dissipation conditions of stator end region, a 50 Hz, 1150 MW, 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator is investigated. The loss and heat at the generator end region are calculated respectively at no-load and rated-load, and the calculation results are compared with the test data. The result shows that the calculation model is accurate and the generator design is suitable. The method is valuable for the research of loss and heat at the end region of large 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator and the improvement of the generator’s operation stability. The method has been applied successfully for the design of the larger nuclear power turbine generators.

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Authors and Affiliations

Guang-Hou Zhou
Li Han
Zhen-Nan Fan
Yong Liao
Song Huang
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An LLCL-filter is becoming more attractive than an LCL-filter as the interface between the grid-tied inverter and the grid due to possibility of reducing the copper and the magnetic materials. The efficiency of the LLCL-filter based single-phase grid-tied inverter also excites interests for many applications. The operation of the switches of the VSI is various with different modulation methods, which lead to different efficiencies for such a single-phase grid-tied inverter system, and therefore important research has been carried out on the effect of the choice of PWM schemes. Then power losses and efficiencies of the LLCL-filter and the LCL-filter based single-phase grid-tied inverters are analyzed and compared under the discontinuous unipolar, the dual-buck and the bipolar modulations. Results show that the efficiency of LLCL-filter based inverter system is higher than the LCL- filter based independent on the modulation method adopted. Experiments on a 2 kW prototype are in good agreement with results of the theoretical analysis.

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Authors and Affiliations

Weimin Wu
Min Huang
Frede Blaabjerg
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Single-branch filters are still popular and are commonly used for power quality improvement purposes. Analysis of a single-branch filter is a relatively simple task. Although individual filters tuned to specific harmonics can be easily designed, after connecting them into a group it turns out that the capacitance and inductance mutually influence each other, distorting the resulting frequency characteristics. This article presents a matrix method for design a group of single-branch filters, so that the resultant frequency characteristic satisfies the design requirements including the requirements for location of the frequency characteristic maxima. Designer indicates the frequencies of the parallel resonances.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ryszard Klempka
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The matrix rectifier modulated by the classical space vector modulation (SVM) strategy generates common-mode voltage (CMV). The high magnitude and high du/dt of the CMV causes serious problems such as motor damage, electromagnetic noise and many others. In this paper, an improved SVM strategy is proposed by replacing the zero vectors with suitable couple of active ones that substantially eliminate the CMV. Theoretical analysis proves that the proposed strategy can reduce the amplitude of the CMV to half of the original value. In addition, the quality of the input and output waveforms is not affected by extra active vectors. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy are shown.

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Authors and Affiliations

Xiao Liu
Qingfan Zhang
Dianli Hou
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The results of the eddy currents losses calculations with using electrodynamics scaling were presented in this paper. Scaling rules were used for obtain the values of the eddy currents losses. For the calculations Finite Element Method was used. Numerical calculations were verified by measurements and a good agreement was obtained.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Koteras
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The paper presents a methodology for the optimization of a Brushless Direct Current motor (BLDC). In particular it is focused on multiobjective optimization using a genetic algorithm (GA) developed in Matlab/Optimization Toolbox coupled with Maxwell from ANSYS. Optimization process was divided into two steps. The aim of the first one was to maximize the RMS torque value and to minimize the mass. The second part of the optimization process was to minimize the cogging torque by selecting proper magnet angle. The paper presents the methodology and capabilities of scripting methods rather than specific optimization results for the applied geometry.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Caramia
R. Piotuch
R. Pałka
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This document contains results of research on complex motion common magnetic circuit electromagnetic converter characteristic that allows making independent axial and rotary shaft motion. The converter in addition to linear-rotary mechanism consists of two drive rotors and one common magnetic circuit excitator. Such a solution allows to reduce volume of the machine and makes it easier to use. The paper cites design intent and possible structure of the device. Phenomenon of common magnetic circuit adverse effect on correct operation of device is discussed. The concept of using relative error as a way to evaluate the influence of that phenomenon in the torques is discussed. Waveforms of determined relative errors for all possible cases is presented. Furthermore the concept of average relative error is defined and its use as a quantitative method of assessing the degree of common circuit impact is indicated. Definition of relative error ripple factor is given, and its usage is shown. Winding inductance calculation based on free FEM application is shown and its influence on control strategy and power system.

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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Kamiński
Paweł Góralski

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ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the manuscript, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion.


References in text must be numbered consecutively by Arabic numerals placed in square brackets. Please make sure that you use full names of journals i.e. Archives of Electrical Engineering. Please ensure that all references in the Reference list are cited in the text and vice versa.

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Examples of the ways in which references should be cited are given below:

Journal manuscript

[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).


[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).


[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).


[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).


[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).


[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).


[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].


[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259


[9], accessed April 2010.


Authors will receive proofs for correction, which should be returned promptly. All joint contributions must indicate the name and address of the authors to whom proofs should be sent.

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AEE is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors will be asked to a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article.

The fee for the publication of an article in the AEE journal is 200 Euro.

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