Applied sciences

Archives of Mining Sciences


Archives of Mining Sciences | 2022 | vol. 67 | No 1

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The mining in seams with a high methane content by means of a longwall system, under conditions of high extraction concentration, results in exceeding methane concentrations allowed by the regulations at workings of the longwall environment, with the effect of mining machines’ standstill periods. The paper is a part of a study supporting the development of a system for shearing cutting speed control at the longwall, which should substantially reduce the production standstills due to exceeded limits and switching off the supply of electric equipment. Such a control system may be appropriate for longwalls ventilated using “Y” and “short Y” methods. Efficient Computer simulations of the 3D airflow and methane propagation may assist the design and initial evaluation of the control system performance. First chapters present studies that are necessary for a proper formulation of the properties of the longwall model. Synthetic analysis of production during the period of longwall operation allowed one to choose the input assumptions to carry out ventilation-methane computations in a CFD numerical model of longwall Z-11. This study is followed by a description of the model that is used for a case study, considering three variants of the shearer position. Finally, initial simulation results and directions of further studies are discussed.
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[1] S. Prusek, E. Krause, J. Skiba, Designing coal panels in the conditions of associated methane and spontaneous fire hazards 30 ( 4), 525-531 (2020). DOI:
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[3] W. Dziurzyński, A. Krach, J. Krawczyk, T. Pałka, Numerical Simulation of Shearer Operation in a Longwall District. Numerical Simulation of Shearer Operation in a Longwall District. Energies 13, 5559 (2020). DOI:
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[15] Z . Wang, T. Ren, Y. Cheng, Numerical investigations of methane flow characteristics on a longwall face Part I: Methane emission and base model results, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 43, 242-253 (2017).
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Janoszek
Jerzy Krawczyk

  1. Central Mining Institute (GIG), 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland
  2. Strata Mechanics Research Institute, Polish Academy of Science, 27 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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The article presents the results of laboratory tests determining the concentration of rare earth elements (REE) in coal-burning wastes to assess their economic usefulness. The content of valuable elements was determined by the technique of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the material collected from three regions of southern Poland. A mixture of waste (including fly ash, furnace slag) from heat and power plants using coal for thermal transformation processes was an object for testing. Part of the research project was to identify a share of the rare elements in the collected samples with a selected grain class of <0.045 mm.
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[12] M. Stępień, B. Białecka, Inwentaryzacja innowacyjnych technologii odzysku odpadów energetycznych. System Wspomagania w Inżynierii Produkcji. Sposoby i Środki Doskonalenia Produktów i Usług na Wybranych Przykładach 6 (8), 108-123 (2017).
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[14] A . Bocheńczyk, M. Mazurkiewicz, E. Mokrzycki, Fly ash energy production – a waste, byproduct raw material. Mineral Resources Management, Kraków 31, 139-150 (2015). DOI :
[15] R.S. Blissett, N. Smalley, N.A. Rowson, An investigation into six coal fly ashes from United Kingdom and Poland to evaluate rare earth element content. Fuel – the science and technology of Fuel and Energy 119, 236-239, United Kingdom (2013). DOI :
[16] H. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Study on Physicochemical Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI ) Fly Ash, International Conference on Environmental Science and Information Application Technology 1, 28-31 (2009). DOI :
[17] R. Baron, Determination of rare earth elements in power plant wastes. Mining Machines 4, 24-30 (2020). DOI :
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Karol Baron
Piotr Matusiak
Daniel Kowol
Marcin Talarek

  1. ITG KOMAG, 37 Pszczyńska Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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BacBinh is a sand dune area located in the southern part of central Vietnam. This area is confronted with a lack of water supply. The project aims to investigate the site for artificial recharge (AR) and the management of aquifer recharge (MAR) in the sand dune area. The geological setting of the area is characterised by ryo-dacitic bedrock, which forms steep isolated hills (up to 300 m a.s.l.) overlain by a Pleistocene-Holocene marine sand dunes plateau (up to 200 m a. s. l.). This is represented by prevailing white fine sand (Pleistocene) and prevailing red sand (Holocene), which occurs extensively in the coastal area. The hydrological and geological conditions are investigated by collecting all existing data of aerial and satellite photos, rainfall statistics, morphological/geological/ and hydrogeological maps for acquisition and interpretation. The field geophysical surveys are carried out for the location of groundwater aquifers to site selection, monitoring and operation of groundwater recharge. Hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation of surface water and groundwater in different periods showed that the sand dunes aquifers, with electrical conductivity ranging from 100 to 400 μS/cm, are composed of different water types, characterised by complex mixing processes. The site chosen for the artificial recharge, where 162 days of pumping tests have been carried out, proved that the use of the bank filtration technique has considerably improved the quality of water, which was originally highly contaminated by E-coli bacteria. The well field developed within the present project is now capable of supplying 220 m3/day of good water quality to the HongPhong community, BacBinh district, which were recurrently affected by severe droughts.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nguyen Van Giang

  1. BinhDuong University, Faculty of Architecture and Construction, 504 Binhduong Ave., Thu-Dau Mot city, BinhDuong province
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There are many problems associated with the surrounding rocks of the gob-side entry retaining by roof cutting (GERRC) as they are difficult to stabilise in deep mines. The following needs to be studied to understand the problems such as the pressure relief mechanism, evolution law of the surrounding-rock stress and the key technologies of GERRC in deep mines. Cracks are formed by advanced directional blasting to sever the path of stress transmission from the roof of the goaf to the roof of the entry and reduce the lateral cantilever length of the roof. Therefore the surrounding-rock stress and roof structure are optimised. The broken and expanded gangue formed by the collapse of the strata in the range of roof cutting fills the mining space adequately, which avoids a rapid pressure increase caused by the roof breaking impact and slows down the movement of overlying strata. The deformation of the deep surrounding rocks is transformed from “abrupt” to “slow”, and the surrounding-rock deformation of the retained entry in deep mines is significantly reduced. The average pressure and periodic pressure of the supports near the blasting line can be reduced by the blasting cracks to a certain extent, mainly due to the reduction of the length of the immediate roof cantilever and the effective load of the main roof. The combined support technologies for GERRC in deep mines were proposed, and field tests were performed. The monitoring results show that the coordinated control system can effectively control the deformation of deep rock masses, and all indexes can meet the requirements of the next working face after the retained entry is stabilised.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shangyuan Chen
Qian Lv
Yue Yuan

  1. School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang, Henan 455000, China
  2. Work Safety Key Lab on Prevention and Control of Gas and Roof Disasters for Southern Coal Mines, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan Hunan 411201, China
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In 2017, the Central Mining Institute (GIG), Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa SA (JSW SA), the largest producer of coking coal in Europe, and JOY KOMATSU, the producer of mining machinery, signed a consortium. The project’s main goal was to reduce the costs of driving mine workings by reintroducing the rock bolt support. The works began in November 2019, and for the first time in the history of Polish coal mining, a Bolter Miner machine was used for the purpose. The paper presents the results of measuring the axial forces in rock bolts at the measurement base and their analysis with numerical modelling.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Masny
Łukasz Nita
Jerzy Ficek

  1. Central Mining Institute, 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland
  2. Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa SA, KWK „Budryk”, Poland
  3. „Geofic“ Scientific and Technical Office, Poland
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Mercury is ranked third on the Substance Priority List, an index of substances determined to pose the most significant potential threat to human health compiled by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. This element is activated with the extraction of hard coal and accumulated in the natural environment or re-emitted from the waste deposited on dumping grounds. So far, studies on mercury content have focused on the analysis of the dumps surface and the adjacent areas. In this paper, the detection of mercury content inside mining waste dumping grounds was analysed. The recognition of mercury content in the profile of the mining waste dump is important in terms of the dismantling of the facility. The dismantling may pose a risk of environmental pollution with mercury due to the possibility of increased fire risk, re-emission, and the transfer of xenobiotics to another place. In this paper, the study of mercury content in the mining waste dump profile was presented. The research demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between the mercury content and the sampling depth. The mercury content in the mining waste was determined based on the rank and origin of hard coal only. Therefore, intensive efforts should be undertaken to identify the environmental hazards arising from the dismantling of mining waste dumps and to adopt measures to prevent these hazards.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Michalska
Adam Smoliński
Aleksandra Koteras

  1. Central Mining Institute (GIG), 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland
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Backbreak is an undesirable phenomenon in blasting operations, which can bedefined as the undesirable destruction of rock behind the last row of explosive holes. To prevent and reduce its adverse effects, it is necessary to accurately predict backbreak in the blasting process. For this purpose, the data obtained from 66 blasting operations in Gol-e-Gohar iron ore mine No. 1 considering blast pattern design Parameters and geologic were collected. The Pearson correlation results showed that the parameters of the hole height, burden, spacing, specific powder, number of holes, and the uniaxial compressive strength had a significant effect on the backbreak. In this study, a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network with the 6-12-1 architecture and six multiple linear and nonlinear statistical models were used to predict the backbreakin the blasting operations. The results of this study demonstrated that the prediction rate of backbreak using the artificial neural network model with R2 = 0.798 and the rates of MAD, MSE, RMSE and, MAPE were0.79, 0.93, 0.97 and, 11.63, respectively, showed fewer minor error compared to statistical models. Based on the sensitivity analysis results, the most important parameters affecting the backbreak, including the hole height, distance between the holes in the same row, the row spacing of the holes, had the most significant effect on the backbreak, and the uniaxial compressive strength showed the lowest impact on it.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abbas Khajouei Sirjani
Farhang Sereshki
Mohammad Ataei
Mohammad Amiri Hosseini

  1. Shahrood University of Technology, Iran
  2. Technology Management and Research of Gol-e-gohar, Iran
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We examine the impact of overburden geomechanical properties on the velocity of the excavator rotary movement Vb and on the excavator current consumption Imax for two different states of excavator teeth: new excavator teeth and worn-out teeth after minimum 250h of work. The analysed dataset is collected from recordings made by the bucket-wheel excavator SchRs 900 25/6 operating at “Tamnava Eastern field” open-pit coal mine in Serbia. The following geomechanical properties of the overburden are examined: grain size composition, unit weight, cohesion and angle of internal friction. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we develop explicit mathematical correlations between Imax and Vb and the overburden properties in a form of nonlinear equations for the case of new excavator teeth, while statistically significant correlation for the worn-out teeth is obtained only between overburden geomechanical properties and Imax. Results obtained indicate the existence of statistically significant two-factor interactions with positive effect of overburden unit weight and angle of internal friction on Imax and Vb, while cohesion is generally inversely proportional to the analysed outputs. Analysis performed enables optimized planning of the excavator performance regarding its productivity during the overburden excavation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Srđan Kostić
Jelena Trivan

  1. Jaroslav Černi Water Institute, Serbia
  2. University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mining Prijedor, Bosnia and Herzegovina
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This article aims at presenting research on the sorption of carbon dioxide on shales, which will allow to estimate the possibility of CO2 injection into gas shales. It has been established that the adsorption of carbon dioxide for a given sample of sorbent is always greater than that of methane. Moreover, carbon dioxide is the preferred gas if adsorption takes place in the presence of both gases. In this study CO2 sorption experiments were performed on high pressure setup and experimental data were fitted into the Ambrose four components models in order to calculate the total gas capacity of shales as potential CO2 reservoirs. Other data necessary for the calculation have been identified: total organic content, porosity, temperature and moisture content. It was noticed that clay minerals also have an impact on the sorption capacity as the sample with lowest TOC has the highest total clay mineral content and its sorption capacity slightly exceeds the one with higher TOC and lower clay content. There is a positive relationship between the total content of organic matter and the stored volume, and the porosity of the material and the stored volume.
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Authors and Affiliations

Patrycja Waszczuk-Zellner
Marcin Lutyński
Aleksandra Koteras

  1. LNPC Patrycja Waszczuk, Pszczyna, Poland
  2. Silesian University of Technology, 2A Akademicka Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  3. Central Mining Institute (GIG), 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland
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This article describes some selected aspects of a preliminary treatment of measurement cycle results obtained by a new Pen206_18 type hydraulic borehole penetrometer (a borehole jack type), a tool of an in situ determining of mechanical properties of rocks. The pre-treatment of the measurement cycle results is a necessary step to prepare the data for a following appropriate analysis of stress-strain parameters of rocks. Aforementioned aspects are focused mainly on a pre-treatment of hydraulic pressure readouts.
The Pen206_18 type penetrometer is a modified version of a standard Pen206 type penetrometer. The standard version, based on a digital measurement of a critical hydraulic pressure, has been in use in polish hard coal mines for almost 15 years to determine various rock strength parameters. In contrary, the Pen206_18 type penetrometer now provides simultaneous recording of two main measurement cycle parameters (hydraulic pressure and a head pin stroke) during the whole measurement cycle duration. A recent modification of the penetrometer has given an opportunity to look closer at various factors having an influence on the measurement cycle data readouts and, as a consequence, to lay a foundation for a development a new penetrometric method of determining stress-strain parameters of rocks.
In this article it was shown that just before a main stage of the measurement cycle, a transitional stage could occur. It complicates a determination of the beginning of an useful set of measurement cycle data. This problem is widely known also in other static in situ methods of determining stress-strain parameters. Unfortunately, none of various known workouts of this problem were sufficiently adequate to the pre-treatment of the penetrometric measurement cycle results. Hence, a new method of determining the beginning of the useful set of pressure readouts has been developed. The proposed method takes into account an influence of an operational characteristics of the measuring device. This method is an essential part of a new pre-treatment procedure of the Pen206_18 measurement cycle’s pressure readouts.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rafał Pierszalik

  1. Central Mining Institute (GIG ), 1 Gwarków Sq., 40-166 Katowice, Poland
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The ventilation system in underground mine is an important guarantee for workers’ safety and environmental conditions. As the mining activities continue, the mine ventilation system is constantly changing. Therefore, to ensure ventilation on demand, the mine ventilation network regulation and optimization are very important. In this paper, the path method based on graph theory is studied. However, the existing path algorithms do not meet the needs of actual mine ventilation regulation and optimization. Therefore, in this paper, the path algorithm is optimized and improved from four aspects. First, based on the depth-first search algorithm, the independent path search algorithm is proposed to solve the problem of false paths in the independent path searched when there is a unidirectional circuit in the ventilation network. Secondly, the independent path calculation formula is amended to ensure that the number of the independent path for the ventilation network with a downcast and an upcast shaft, multi-downcast and multi-upcast shaft and unidirectional circuits is calculated accurately. Thirdly, to avoid both an increase in the number of control points in the multi-fan ventilation network and disturbances in the airflow distribution by determining the reference path through all the independent paths, all the independent paths with the shared fan must be identified. Fourthly, The number and the position of the regulators in the ventilation network are determined and optimized, and the final optimization of air quantity regulation for the ventilation network is realized. The case study shows that this algorithm can effectively and accurately realize the regulation of air quantity of a multi-fan mine ventilation network.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jinmiao Wang
1 2
Mingtao Jia
Lin Bin
Liguan Wang
Deyun Zhong

  1. School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
  2. School of Environment and Resources, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China
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One of the most hazardous places in mines are longwall areas. They emit a considerable amount of methane to the ventilation air. The emission depends on many but mostly known factors. The article presents the research results on changes in the methane concentration along the longwall excavations and longwall. The distributions were obtained based on a measurement experiment at the ZG Brzeszcze mine in Poland. The author’s research aimed to experimentally determine the concentration of methane as a function of the length of excavation for the longwall excavations and longwall. As a result, methane concentration trends along the excavations were obtained. The conclusions show the pros and cons of the method used, and it allows to set the right direction in the development of measurement systems and sensors.
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Ostrogórski
Przemysław Skotniczny
Mieczysław Pucka

  1. Strata Mechanics Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 27 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. Tauron Wydobycie S.A. ZG Brzeszcze, ul. Kościuszki 1, 32-620 Brzeszcze, Poland

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[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer . Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI:

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI:

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012). DOI:


[4] K.U. Kainer (Ed.), Metal Matrix Composites, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006).

[5] K. Szacilowski, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, Wiley (2012).

[6] L. Reimer, H. Kohl, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, Springer, New York (2008).

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[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major, P. Zięba (Eds.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

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[8], accessed: 17.04.2017

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[9] T. Mitra, PhD thesis, Modeling of Burden Distribution in the Blast Furnace, Abo Akademi University, Turku/Abo, Finland (2016).

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