Applied sciences

Archives of Acoustics

Content

Archives of Acoustics | 2020 | vol. 45 | No 2 |

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Abstract

The theatres of Antiquity, Greek and Roman, constitute public buildings of the utmost importance in the history of Western culture and in universal cultural heritage. Many of these spaces are being used for their original function with or without only minor adaptations. If they are well preserved and/or restored, these performance buildings attract large audiences to representations of classical and contemporary plays, thereby serving the purpose for which they were built in the Ancient Age. These theatres bear witness to the existing relationship between architectural work, visual and acoustic experience, and dramatic art. Although the majority are located in the Mediterranean region, these structures were also built in the major cities of the ancient world in Europe, the Middle East, northern Africa, and beyond. This paper aims to summarise and critically review research published in the literature regarding their acoustic aspects, with particular emphasis on Roman theatres. These pieces of research emphasize the importance of the diffraction of sound in the tiers of the cavea and the good intelligibility for speech of the Greco-Roman theatre.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sara Girón
Ángel Álvarez-Corbacho
Teófilo Zamarreño
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Abstract

A single acoustic vector sensor (AVS) cannot be used to find the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of two or more coherent (fully correlated) sources. We have proposed a technique for estimating DOAs (in 2D geometry) of two simultaneous coherent sources using single AVS under the assumption that acoustic sources enter in the field sequentially. The DOA estimation has been investigated with two different configurations of AVS, each consisting of three microphones in a plane. The technique has been also applied in tracking (a) an acoustic source in the presence of stationary interfering coherent source and (b) two coherent sources when the sources are changing their locations alternatively. The experimental environment has been generated using the Finite-Element Method tool viz. COMSOL to corroborate the proposed scheme.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mohd Wajid
Arun Kumar
Rajendar Bahl
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Abstract

Safety and reliability are primary concerns in launch vehicle performance due to the involved costs and risk. Pressure vessels are one of the significant subsystems of launch vehicles. In order to have minimal weight, high strength material viz. maraging steel M250 grade is used in realizing the pressure vessel casing hardware. Despite the best efforts in design methodology, quality evaluation in production and effective structural integrity assessment is still a farfetched goal. The evolution of such a system requires, first, identification of an appropriate technique and next its adoption to meet the challenges posed by advanced materials like maraging steels. In fact, a quick survey of the available Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques suggests Acoustic Emission (AE) as an effective structural integrity assessment tool capable of identifying any impending failure or degradation at an earlier stage. Experience shows that the longitudinal welds in the pressure vessels are quite vulnerable to failure due to the fact that they experience the maximum stress (i.e. hoop stress). Loading welded tensile samples are quite synonymous to the hoop stress experienced by longitudinal welds. An attempt is made to compare the Acoustic Emission data acquired during tensile deformation of maraging steel welded specimens. A total of 16 welded specimen’s with known defects were studied for their tensile behaviour is in connection with Acoustic Emission data. The lowest failure load was 70.5 kN and the highest being 84.8 kN. AE activity graphs viz. cumulative AE activity, hit rate, energy rate, count rate, AE amplitude history, AE count history, AE energy history, amplitude-count correlation and hit amplitude distribution have been investigated and salient features with respect to the data have been critically studied and relevant correlations are arrived at.

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Authors and Affiliations

Gowri Shankar Wuriti
Somnath Chattopadhyaya
Grzegorz Krolczyk
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Abstract

Natural fibres are attractive as the raw material for developing sound absorber, as they are green, eco-friendly, and health friendly. In this paper, pineapple leaf fibre/epoxy composite is considered in sound absorber development where several values of mechanical pressures were introduced during the fabrication of absorber composite. The results show that the composite can absorb incoming sound wave, where sound absorption coefficients α _n > 0.5 are pronounced at mid and high frequencies. It is also found that 23.15 kN/m^2 mechanical pressure in composite fabrication is preferred, while higher pressure leads to solid panel rather than sound absorber so that the absorption capability reduces. To extend the absorption towards lower frequency, the composite absorber requires thickness higher than 3 cm, while a thinner absorber is only effective at 1 kHz and above. Additionally, it is confirmed that the Delany-Bazley formulation fails to predict associated absorption behavior of pineapple leaf fibre-based absorber. Meanwhile, a modified Delany-Bazley model discussed in this paper is more useful. It is expected that the model can assist further development of the pineapple leaf composite sound absorber.

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Authors and Affiliations

Damar Rastri Adhika
Iwan Prasetiyo
Abiyoga Noeriman
Nurul Hidayah
Widayani
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Abstract

The magnetoacoustic heating of a plasma by harmonic or periodic saw-tooth perturbations at a transducer is theoretically studied. The planar fast and slow magnetosound waves are considered. The wave vector may form an arbitrary angle θ with the equilibrium straight magnetic strength. In view of variable θ and plasma-β, the description of magnetosound perturbations and relative magnetosound heating is fairly difficult. The scenario of heating depends not only on plasma-β and θ, but also on a balance between nonlinear attenuation at the shock front and inflow of energy into a system. Under some conditions, the average over the magnetosound period force of heating may tend to a positive or negative limit, or may tend to zero, or may remain constant when the distance from a transducer tends to infinity. Dynamics of temperature specifying heating differs in thermally stable and unstable cases and occurs unusually in the isentropically unstable flows.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Perelomova
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Abstract

Implementation of European directives is closely related to the quality of production and the associated operational safety, maintenance of machines and mechanical systems, both mobile or stationary, in order to reduce the dynamic load (vibration and noise) on the working environment, not only during their operating state but also during their design, production, and setting of the vibration isolation components. Reducing the dynamic load of mechanical systems and their components is reflected in the working environment by reduced emissions and immissions of noise and vibration. The presented paper investigates the methods and conditions for noise and vibration control, focusing mainly on increasing the quality of rotating machine components, such as bearings by means of effective vibration isolation of the machines. The solution of this problem requires theoretical analysis and methodology for the measurement of the mechanical systems involved. The results of the vibroacoustic measurements were analysed in terms of the low frequency vibration and noise level (quality) of bearings and conditions for effective vibration isolation of the machines using vibroacoustic diagnostic method. Furthermore, the impact on the working environment was also analysed. Finally, the paper suggests some actions to be taken to effectively reduce the unwanted vibrosound energy in working places, also using recycled material as a vibration isolation element.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanislav Žiaran
Ľubomír Šooš
Ondrej Chlebo
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Abstract

Acoustic signal is more and more frequently used to diagnose machines operated in industrial conditions where installation of sensors is hindered. Impact of background noise seems to be the major problem as part of analysis of such signal. In most cases of industrial environments, background level is high; thus, it prevents against concluding as per standard methods that have been used in diagnostic testing. This study specifies the problem related to diagnosing machines operated under variable loads. Synchronous methods are used for diagnosing these types of machines, those include synchronisation of diagnostic signal with revolutions of the diagnosed machine. For the purpose of this study an acoustic signal was used as the diagnostic signal. Application of the synchronous method (order analysis) enables eliminating an impact of background noise derived from other sources. This study specifies application of acoustic signal to diagnose planetary gear in laboratory testing rig in order to discover damages at early stage of degradation. This method was compared with the method basing on measurement of vibrations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Pawlik
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Abstract

This paper explores the influence of linear gear tip relief modification on power transmission efficiency. In real time applications gears experience transmission error (TE) during operation which increases noise and vibration and also results in increased tooth profile deformation during operation of the gear. By providing tip relief profile modification this TE can be decreased. Using MATLAB for computation and ANSYS for the simulation of deformation, stress, strain, life, and factor of safety results for the gear assemblies are obtained. Deformation results are used for the computation change in power transmission efficiency followed by the modal and harmonic analysis of the gears and gear assemblies to determine change in the first mode of natural frequency.

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Authors and Affiliations

Narendiranath Babu Thamba
Abhijeet Mukund Tambare
Krishna Caitanya Ananthanarayanan
Rama Prabha Duraiswamy
Shankar Thangavelu
Raj Kumar Easwara Pillai
Ramalinga Viswanathan Mangalaraja
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Abstract

Last decades, rolling bearing faults assessment and their evolution with time have been receiving much interest due to their crucial role as part of the Conditional Based Maintenance (CBM) of rotating machinery. This paper investigates bearing faults diagnosis based on classification approach using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) features. Throughout, only one criterion is defined for the evaluation of the performance during all the cycle of the classification process. This is the Average Classification Rate (ACR) obtained from the confusion matrix. In every test performed, the generated features vectors are considered along to discriminate between four fault conditions as normal bearings, bearings with inner and outer race faults and ball faults. Many configurations were tested in order to determinate the optimal values of input parameters, as the frame analysis length, the order of model, and others. The experimental application of the proposed method was based on vibration signals taken from the bearing datacenter website of Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). Results show that proposed method can reliably classify different fault conditions and have a highest classification performance under some conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Youcef Atmani
Said Rechak
Ammar Mesloub
Larbi Hemmouch
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Abstract

The aim of the study study was to model, with the use of a neural network algorithm, the significance of a variety of factors influencing the development of hearing loss among industry workers. The workers were categorized into three groups, according to the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level of noise exposure: Group 1 (LAeq < 70 dB), Group 2 (LAeq 70–80 dB), and Group 3 (LAeq > 85 dB). The results obtained for Group 1 indicate that the hearing thresholds at the frequencies of 8 kHz and 1 kHz had the maximum effect on the development of hearing loss. In Group 2, the factors with maximum weight were the hearing threshold at 4 kHz and the worker’s age. In Group 3, maximum weight was found for the factors of hearing threshold at a frequency of 4 kHz and duration of work experience. The article also reports the results of hearing loss modeling on combined data from the three groups. The study shows that neural data mining classification algorithms can be an effective tool for the identification of hearing hazards and greatly help in designing and conducting hearing conservation programs in the industry.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sajad Zare
Mohammad Reza Ghotbiravandi
Hossein Elahishirvan
Mostafa Ghazizadeh Ahsaeed
Mina Rostami
Reza Esmaeili
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Abstract

Complaints and awareness about environmental low-frequency (LF) noise and infrasound (IS) have increased in recent years, but knowledge about perceptual mechanisms is limited. To evaluate the use of the brain’s frequency-following response (FFR) as an objective correlate of individual sensitivity to IS and LF, we recorded the FFR to monaurally presented IS (11 Hz) and LF (38 Hz) tones over a 30-phon range for 11 subjects. It was found that 11-Hz FFRs were often significant already at ~0 phon, steeply grew to 20 phon, and saturated above. In contrast, the 38-Hz FFR growth was relatively shallow and continued to 60 phon. Furthermore, at the same loudness level (30 phon), the 11-Hz FFR strength was significantly larger (4.5 dB) than for 38 Hz, possibly reflecting a higher phase synchronization across the auditory pathway. Overall, unexpected inter-individual variability as well as qualitative differences between the measured FFR growth functions and typical loudness growth make interpretation of the FFR as objective correlate of IS and LF sensitivity difficult.

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Authors and Affiliations

Carlos Jurado
Torsten Marquardt
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Abstract

In the early days, consumption of multimedia content related with audio signals was only possible in a stationary manner. The music player was located at home, with a necessary physical drive. An alternative way for an individual was to attend a live performance at a concert hall or host a private concert at home. To sum up, audio-visual effects were only reserved for a narrow group of recipients. Today, thanks to portable players, vision and sound is at last available for everyone. Finally, thanks to multimedia streaming platforms, every music piece or video, e.g. from one’s favourite artist or band, can be viewed anytime and everywhere. The background or status of an individual is no longer an issue. Each person who is connected to the global network can have access to the same resources. This paper is focused on the consumption of multimedia content using mobile devices. It describes a year to year user case study carried out between 2015 and 2019, and describes the development of current trends related with the expectations of modern users. The goal of this study is to aid policymakers, as well as providers, when it comes to designing and evaluating systems and services.

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Authors and Affiliations

Przemysław Falkowski-Gilski
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Abstract

The paper describes an innovative ultrasound imaging method called Doppler Tomography (DT), otherwise known as Continuous Wave Ultrasonic Tomography (CWUT). Thanks to this method, it is possible to image the tissue cross-section in vivo using a simple two-transducer ultrasonic probe and using the Doppler effect. It should be noted that DT significantly differs from the conventional ultrasound Doppler method of measuring blood flow velocity. The main difference is that when measuring blood flow, we receive information with an image of the velocity distribution in a given blood vessel (Nowicki, 1995), while DT allows us to obtain a cross-sectional image of stationary tissue structure. In the conventional method, the probe remains stationary, while in the DT method, the probe moves and the examined tissue remains stationary.

This paper presents a method of image reconstruction using the DT method. First, the basic principle of correlation of generated Doppler frequencies with the location of inclusions from which they originate is explained. Then the exact process and algorithm in this method are presented. Finally, the impact of several key parameters on imaging quality is examined. As a result, the conclusions of the research allow to improve the image reconstruction process using the DT method.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Świetlik
Krzysztof J. Opieliński
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Abstract

The hulls of naval ships are exposed to forces and moments coming from internal and external sources. Usually, these are interactions that can be described mathematically by harmonic and polyharmonic functions. The shock of UNDEX type (underwater explosion) works completely differently and its time waveform is difficult to describe with mathematical functions as pressure vs. time. The paper presents a simplification of physical and mathematical models of 1-D kickoff pressure whose aim is performance the simulation of the external force of the detonation wave. The proposed models were verified and tuned on naval, sea trials. The main goals of the proposed models are to perform simulation calculations of the detonation pressure for different explosion charge weights from different distances of the UNDEX epicentre for the design process of machine foundation. The effects of pressure are transformed as impulses exposed on shock absorber mounted at light shock machine.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Grządziela
Agata Załęska-Fornal
Marcin Kluczyk
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Abstract

The features of respiratory noises and noises of fins for open-circuit scuba divers, indicating a multipole character of noises emission, are specified in cameral conditions. It demonstrates a possibility to detect low-frequency components of noises of fins with pressure gradient sensor in near field. A possibility of estimating the respiratory rate of an open-circuit scuba diver is demonstrated at distances up to 100 m in real sea. It gives an opportunity of estimating the bearing (time delay in a pair of hydrophones) for the open-circuit scuba diver by respiratory noises at distances up to 150 m in real sea. Thus, low-frequency underwater noises of open-circuit scuba divers may be successfully applied to monitor the safety of diving and to prevent waterside intrusion by trespassers.

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Authors and Affiliations

Vladimir Korenbaum
Anatoly Kostiv
Sergey Gorovoy
Veniamin Dorozhko
Anton Shiryaev
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Abstract

The effectiveness of half flat tip serrations on reducing fan blade trailing edge noise was investigated using experimental methods. The experiments were conducted at an anechoic chamber under different rotating fan speeds. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the mass flow rate generated by the serrated fan and compared with that by the baseline fan. The experimental results showed that the overall amount of noise reduction decreased with the increasing of the distance away from the fan. It was found that the effectiveness of the serrations was not proportional with the rotating speed of the fan where it was most effective at 263 rpm and 2041 rpm with noise reductions about 3.1 dBA and 3.5 dBA, respectively. This phenomenon might be depended on how trailing edge vortex would interact with the serrations at different speeds of the fan. The reduction of mass flow rate reduced with the increasing of the rotating speed and the highest reduction was found at 263 rpm which was about 18% and this reduction was accompanied by overall noise reduction of 3.1 dBA.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hsiao Mun Lee
Kian Meng Lim
Jinlong Xie
Heow Pueh Lee
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Abstract

Within this study, resonance phenomenon, which is one of the crucial problems in mechanical constructions, has been analyzed with respect to oil starvation failure in a ball bearing. A unique test rig is designed, constructed, and placed in a laboratory ambience. A ball bearing on the electrical motor, which is a component of the test rig, has been selected for acquisition of data within triple sensing technology in vibration, acoustic, and electrical consumption through testing conditions. The target of that study is condition monitoring of oil starvation fault and resonance fault for comparison of various predictive maintenance methods. The testing was carried out within the electrical frequency of 40.5 Hz, which actuated the electrical motor in order to identify the rotation speed. According to the analyzed results, oil starvation fault and resonance fault is most accurately inspected by vibration analysis.

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Authors and Affiliations

Salih Seçkin Erol
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Abstract

49th Winter School on Wave and Quantum Acoustics constituted platforms for sharing the results and achievements obtained in different branches of physical acoustics, as molecular acoustics, quantum acoustics, acousto-optics, magnetoacoustics, photoacoustics, acoustics of solid state, acoustic emission, and others. Moreover, researches in some selected topics related to those mentioned above (e.g. optoelectronics, relaxation processes) were presented during the school.

The conference consisted of the 16th Workshop on Acoustoelectronics and the 16th Workshop on Molecular Acoustics, Relaxation and Calorimetric Methods. However, the organizers are opened to organizing workshops on other subjects in future. We would like to invite scientific centers and other professional groups to cooperate in organizing workshops on the subjects of their interests.

XLVIIIth Winter School on Environmental Acoustics and Vibroacoustics was a forum for all environmental and vibroacoustics fields. Particularly it was concerned with traffic noise, vibroacoustics of machines, room acoustics, building acoustics, noise protection and similar problems. During the Conference, seminars on “Measurement of noise and vibration at the workplace” and Environmental noise monitoring”, combined with measurement workshops, were organised in association with SVANTEK.

The Conferences began with the special, joined session dedicated to celebration of the 15th Jubilee Conference Integrated Optics – Sensors, Sensing Structures and Methods. In summary, 48 people participated in Conferences and seminars, presenting 37 lectures, reports and posters. In this issue one can find abstracts of some lectures and posters, which were presented during the Conferences.

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Authors and Affiliations

Winter Schools on Acoustics

Editorial office

Editorial Board
Editor-in-Chief
Andrzej Nowicki (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Barbara Gambin (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
Associate Editors
Genaral linear acoustics and physical acoustics
• Wojciech P. Rdzanek (University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów)
• Anna Snakowska (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Architectural acoustics
• Tadeusz Kamisiński (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
Musical acoustics and psychological acoustics
• Andrzej Miśkiewicz (The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music, Warszawa)
• Anna Preis (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań)
Underwater acoustics and nonlinear acoustics
• Grażyna Grelowska (Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk)
Speech, Computational acoustics and signal processing
• Ryszard Gubrynowicz (Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Warszawa)
Ultrasonics, transducers and instrumentation
• Krzysztof Opieliński (Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław)
Electroacoustics
• Jan Żera (Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa)
Noise control and environmental acoustics
• Jan Adamczyk (AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków)
• Mirosław Meissner (Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAN, Warszawa)
• Janusz Kompała (Central Mining Institute, Katowice)
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• Izabela Ewa Mika

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