Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Content

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2022 | vol. 71 | No 3

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Abstract

The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is a principal method for power system harmonic analysis. The fundamental frequency of the power system increases or decreases following load changes during normal operation. It is difficult to achieve synchronous sampling and integer period truncation in power harmonic analysis. The resulting spectrum leakage affects the accuracy of the measurement results. For this reason, a windowed interpolation DFT method for power system harmonic analysis to reduce errors was presented in this paper. First, the frequency domain expression of the windowed signal Fourier transform is analyzed. Then, the magnitude of the three discrete spectrum lines near the harmonic frequency point is used to determine the accurate position of the harmonic spectrum. Then, the calculation of the amplitude, frequency, and phase of harmonics is presented. The tripleline interpolation DFT can improve the accuracy of electrical harmonic analysis. Based on the algorithm, the practical rectification formulas were obtained by using the polynomial approximation method. The simulation results show that the fast attenuation of window function sidelobe is the key to reduce the error. The triple-line interpolation DFT based on Hanning, Blackman, Nuttall 3-Term windows has higher calculation accuracy, which can meet the requirements of electrical harmonic analysis.
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Bibliography

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[15] Jiao L., Du Y., An Approach for Electrical Harmonic Analysis Based on Interpolation DFT, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 445–454 (2022), DOI: 10.24425/aee.2022.140721.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ling Liu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jinsong Zhang
1

  1. Shandong Polytechnic, China
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Abstract

Grid-connected inverters are commonly used in systems of renewable energy to convert this energy source into AC power with parameters suitable for connection to the grid. In the normal operating conditions, the grid-connected inverters mainly generate active power to the grid. However, when a voltage sag or voltage imbalance occurs, the grid voltage imbalance in the conventional control methods causes negative sequence components and increases the output current magnitude of inverters. The increase of current can damage power semiconductor devices. This paper presents a strategy to limit the current magnitude of inverters under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. In this strategy, a multiple-complex-coefficient filter is used to eliminate the negative sequence voltage components. This method does not require any additional hardware. A three-phase gridconnected photovoltaic inverter system using a solar array of 20 kWp is also used for the survey. The effectiveness has been validated when comparing the simulation results on Matlab/Simulink of the proposed method with those of the conventional method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tho Quang Tran
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hochiminh City University of Technology and Education, Vietnam
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Abstract

This paper proposes an electromechanical transient method to build a battery energy storage system-based virtual synchronous generator model, suitable for a large-scale grid. This model consists of virtual synchronous generator control, system limitation and the model interface. The equations of a second-order synchronous machine, the characteristics of charging/discharging power, state of charge, operating efficiency, dead band and inverter limits are also considered. By equipping the energy storage converter into an approximate synchronous voltage source with an excitation system and speed regulation system, the necessary inertia and damping characteristics are provided for the renewable energy power system with low inertia and weak damping. Based on the node current injection method by the power system analysis software package (PSASP), the control model is built to study the influence of different energy storage systems. A study on the impact of renewable energy unit fluctuation on frequency and the active power of the IEEE 4-machine 2-area system is selected for simulation verification. Through reasonable control and flexible allocation of energy storage plants, a stable and friendly frequency environment can be created for power systems with high-penetration renewable energy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Juntao Cui
1
Zhao Li
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ping He
2
ORCID: ORCID
Zhijie Gong
2
Jie Dong
2

  1. Lanzhou Resources and Environment Voc-Tech University, China
  2. Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, China
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Abstract

This paper provides a method for simplified description of a regional power grid model aimed to deliver a grid reduction, and improve grid performance observability. The derived power grid model can be used to analyze the regional allocation of the decentralized energy generation and consumption. The expansion of wind and solar generation in the power system affects the residual load. The power balance between electricity consumption and generation was calculated and analyzed based on the temporal and spatial scales. The proposed grid clustering method is a useful approach for performance analysis in systems with a growing share of renewable generation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yang Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Przemysław Janik
2
ORCID: ORCID
Harald Schwarz
1
Klaus Pfeiffer
1

  1. Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Department of Energy Distribution and High Voltage Engineering, 03046 Cottbus, Germany
  2. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering Fundamentals, 50-377 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

With the extinction of fossil fuels and high increase in power demand, the necessity for renewable energy power generation has increased globally. Solar PV is one such renewable energy power generation, widely used these days in the power sector. The inverters used for power conversion suffer from power losses in the switching elements. This paper aims at the detailed analysis on switching losses in these inverters and also aims at increasing the efficiency of the inverter by reducing losses. Losses in these power electronic switches vary with their types. In this analysis the most widely used semiconductor switches like the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) are compared. Also using the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) technique, improves the system efficiency considerably. Two SPWM-based singlephase inverters with the IGBT and MOSFET are designed and simulated in a MATLAB Simulink environment. The voltage drop and, thereby, the power loss across the switches are compared and analysed. The proposed technique shows that the SPWM inverter with the IGBT has lower power loss than the SPWM inverter with the MOSFET.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sivaraj Panneerselvam
1
ORCID: ORCID
Karunanithi Kandasamy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Chandrasekar Perumal
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
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Abstract

This article provides an optimized solution to the problem of passive shielding against static magnetic fields with any number of spherical shells. It is known, that the shielding factor of a layered structure increases in contrast to a single shell with the same overall thickness. For the reduction of weight and cost by given material parameters and available space the best system for the layer positions has to be found. Because classic magnetically shielded rooms are very heavy, this system will be used to develop a transportable Zero-Gauss-Chamber. To handle this problem, a new way was developed, in which for the first time the solution with regard to shielding and weight was optimized. Therefore, a solution for the most general case of spherical shells was chosen with an adapted boundary condition. This solution was expanded to an arbitrary number of layers and permeabilities. With this analytic solution a differential evolution algorithm is able to find the best partition of the shells. These optimized solutions are verified by numerical solutions made by the Finite Element Method (FEM). After that the solutions of different raw data are determined and investigated.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Patrick Alexander Ralf
1
ORCID: ORCID
Christian Kreischer
1

  1. Helmut Schmidt University, University of the Federal Armed Forced Hamburg, Germany
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Abstract

This article presents a new efficient optimization technique namely the Multi- Objective Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm (MOIDEA) to solve the multiobjective optimal power flow problem in power systems. The main features of the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm are simple, easy, and efficient, but sometimes, it is prone to stagnation in the local optima. This paper has proposed many improvements, in the exploration and exploitation processes, to enhance the performance of DE for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The main contributions of the DE algorithm are i) the crossover rate will be changing randomly and continuously for each iteration, ii) all probabilities that have been ignored in the crossover process have been taken, and iii) in selection operation, the mathematical calculations of the mutation process have been taken. Four conflicting objective functions simultaneously have been applied to select the Pareto optimal front for the multi-objective OPF. Fuzzy set theory has been used to extract the best compromise solution. These objective functions that have been considered for setting control variables of the power system are total fuel cost (TFC), total emission (TE), real power losses (RPL), and voltage profile (VP) improvement. The IEEE 30-bus standard system has been used to validate the effectiveness and superiority of the approach proposed based on MATLAB software. Finally, to demonstrate the effectiveness and capability of the MOIDEA, the results obtained by this method will be compared with other recent methods.
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Authors and Affiliations

Murtadha Al-Kaabi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jaleel Al Hasheme
2
ORCID: ORCID
Layth Al-Bahrani
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Ministry of Education Baghdad, Iraq
  2. University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
  3. Al-Mustansiriyah University Baghdad, Iraq
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Abstract

This article deals with the analysis of the fractal dimension of streamers propagating in mineral oil, under lightning impulse voltage, using the box counting method; the method and technique of calculation are described therein. In the considered experimental conditions, the average velocities of recorded streamers are of 2.4 km/s and 1.8 km/s for positive and negative streamers, respectively; these velocities correspond to the 2nd mode of streamers propagation. It is shown that the streamers present the fractal dimension D ; and the higher D is the bushier are the streamers (i.e. with high branch density). The positive streamers can have higher D than the negative ones, if they are bushier.
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Bibliography

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Authors and Affiliations

Viet-Hung Dang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Abderrahmane Beroual
2
ORCID: ORCID
Pawel Rozga
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Electric Power University, Vietnam
  2. University of Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France
  3. Lodz University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

The aftermath of including new technologies in a modern electric system in conjunction with the incessant rise in power demand could pose a risk to the optimal operation of the system. Therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the most influential and critical nodes of such a system to avert future problems in network operation. In this paper, to identify most significant nodes of the system, the authors propose two measures of centrality in accordance with the network structural properties of a power system, namely, degree centrality (DC) and eigenvector centrality (EC). These are expressed considering the admittance matrix that exists among the interconnection of load to load nodes in an electrical power network. A critical node closeness centrality (CNCC) method is also proposed to identify critical nodes of the system. This is done by modifying the conventional closeness centrality (CC) to include the influence of interconnection that exists between network load to load nodes as captured by the admittance matrix between them. A comparative analysis of the proposed techniques with other conventional methods is also carried out. The result of the simulation shows that the proposed methods could serve as alternative tools in the identification of influential and weak nodes in a power system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Isaiah Adebayo
1
Yanxia Sun
2

  1. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
  2. University of Johannesburg, P.O. BOX 524, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
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Abstract

Large synchronous generators are of high importance for the stability of power systems. They generate the frequency of the system and stabilize it in case of severe grid faults like trips of large in-feeders or loads. In distributed energy systems, in-feed via inverters will replace this generation in large parts. Modern inverters are capable of supporting grid frequency during severe faults by different means on the one hand. On the other hand, higher Rates of Change of Frequency (RoCoF) after incidents need to be accustomed by future systems. To be able to analyse the RoCoF withstand capability of synchronous or induction generators, suitable models need to be developed. Especially the control and excitation system model need enhancements compared to models proposed in standards like IEEE Std 421.5. This paper elaborates on the necessary modelling depth and validates the approach with example results.
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Authors and Affiliations

Alf Assenkamp
1

  1. Bureau Veritas CPS Germany GmbH, Germany
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Abstract

Suspension line insulators are during their operation subject to static forces and variable loads, usually of a cyclic character. These variable loads have a significant impact on the mechanical durability of composite insulators. A method of providing durability forecast for composite line insulators based on fatigue characteristics has been proposed. The method allows providing durability forecast of insulators in a wide range of variable loadings, i.e. from quasi-static to high amplitude loadings.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Bielecki
1
Jacek Wańkowicz
1

  1. Institute of Power Engineering – Research Institute, 8 Mory Str., 01-330 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

In this paper, the design issue of effective damping of electromechanical swings in a medium voltage network with distributed generation by the use of a PSS2A type power system stabiliser is described. This stabiliser was installed in the generating unit with the highest rated power. Time constants of correction blocks, as well as the main gain, were determined by analyzing a single-machine system, generating unit – infinite bus. The time constants were calculated on the basis of the frequency-phase transfer functions both of the electromagnetic moment to the voltage regulator reference voltage and of the generator voltage to the voltage regulator reference voltage, under the assumption of an infinite and real value of the generating unit inertia time constant for various initial generator loads. The main stabiliser gain was calculated by analyzing the position, on the complex plane, of eigenvalues of the state matrix of the single-machine system, linearised around a steady operating point, at the changed value of this gain.
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Bibliography

[1] He P., Qi P., Ji Y., Li Z., Dynamic interactions stability analysis of hybrid renewable energy system with SSSC, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 445–462 (2021), DOI: 10.24425/aee.2021.136995.
[2] Su M., Dong H., Liu K., Zou W., Subsynchronous oscillation and its mitigation of VSC-MTDC with doubly-fed induction generator-based wind farm integration, Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 53–72 (2021), DOI: 10.24425/aee.2021.136052.
[3] Nocon A., Electromechanical transient states of distributed sources operating within power system, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Slaskiej, Gliwice (2019).
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Authors and Affiliations

Stefan Paszek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Adrian Nocoń
1
ORCID: ORCID
Piotr Pruski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 10 str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

For a higher classification accuracy of disturbance signals of power quality, a disturbance classification method for power quality based on gram angle field and multiple transfer learning is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the one-dimensional disturbance signal of power quality is transformed into a Gramian angular field (GAF) coded image by using the gram angle field, and then three ResNet networks are constructed. The disturbance signals with representative signal-to-noise ratios of 0 dB, 20 dB and 40 dB are selected as the input of the sub-model to train the three sub-models, respectively. During this period, the training weights of the sub-models are transferred in turn by using the method of multiple transfer learning. The pre-training weight of the latter model is inherited from the training weight of the previous model, and the weight processing methods of partial freezing and partial fine-tuning are adopted to ensure the optimal training effect of the model. Finally, the features of the three sub-models are fused to train the classifier with a full connection layer, and a disturbance classification model for power quality is obtained. The simulation results show that the method has higher classification accuracy and better anti-noise performance, and the proposed model has good robustness and generalization.
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Authors and Affiliations

Peng Heping
1
Mo Wenxiong
1
Wang Yong
1
Luan Le
1
Xu Zhong
1

  1. Guangzhou Power Supply Bureau of Guangdong Power Grid Co., Ltd.Guangdong, Guangzhou 510620, China
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Abstract

The objective of this work is to evaluate the safety of adult and child passengers exposed to a radio frequency (RF) source, i.e., a leaky coaxial cable (LCX) on the subway platform. An adult model, a child model, and an LCX model have been numerically designed in COMSOL Multiphysics software. The distributions of the induced electric field (E-field), specific absorption rate (SAR), magnetic field ( H-field) and the head temperature increase in adult and child passenger models were calculated at 900 MHz. The induced fields in the passengers were compared with that without screen doors. The results show that the E-field, SAR and H-field in the whole body of the child are 2.00 × 10 -2 V/m, 1.07 × 10 -7 W/kg, and 2.94 × 10 -4 A/m, respectively. The E-field, SAR and H-field in the central nervous system of the child are 1.00e × 10 -2 V/m, 2.44 × 10 -8 W/kg, and 2.41 × 10 -4 A/m, respectively. The maximum values of the E-field, SAR and H-field in the adult passenger are 1.49–2.34 times higher than those of the child. The E-field, SAR, and H-field in the passenger models without a screen door are larger than those with a screen door. The screen door has a partial shielding effect on the RF electromagnetic field. The values of the maximum temperature that increases in adult and child head tissue are 0.2114 and 0.2111℃ after waiting 6 minutes exposure, respectively. All calculated results are well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limits for general public exposure, indicating that RF electromagnetic exposure caused by the LCX on the subway platform is not a threat to passenger’s health.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jin Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mai Lu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronic Technology and Intelligent Control of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Gansu Province, China
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Abstract

This paper presents an algorithm and optimization procedure for the optimization of the outer rotor structure of the brushless DC (BLDC) motor. The optimization software was developed in the Delphi Tiburón development environment. The optimization procedure is based on the salp swarm algorithm. The effectiveness of the developed optimization procedurewas compared with genetic algorithm and particle swarmoptimization algorithm. The mathematical model of the device includes the electromagnetic field equations taking into account the non-linearity of the ferromagnetic material, equations of external supply circuits and equations of mechanical motion. The external penalty function was introduced into the optimization algorithm to take into account the non-linear constraint function.
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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Knypiński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ramesh Devarapalli
2
ORCID: ORCID
Yvonnick Le Menach
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Poland
  2. Department of EEE, Lendi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Vizianagaram, India
  3. Lille University, France
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Abstract

An integration of the electrical machine and the gearbox is attracting particular attention for the design of modern electric and hybrid drive trains, since it saves overall space and subsequently increases the power density. Another benefit of a high level of integration is that it enables a combined application of oils as both cooling fluid for the electrical machine and as lubrication fluid for the transmission system. In this way, the power density of the integrated drive train can be further increased. During the oil cycling, conductive contaminations may be introduced and subsequently have an influence on the function of the insulation system of the electrical machine. In the present work, the influences of the cooling oil and its conductive contaminations, conductive particles as well as their combination with humidity, on the electrical and dielectric properties of the insulation system are studied. The results show that by application of the cooling oil, the partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) of the winding insulation increases significantly so that an electrical breakdown is prone to happen before a partial discharge (PD) occurs. With increasing particle contamination, the PDIV of the insulation system decreases significantly, while the capacitance increases. Besides, conductive particles and humidity decrease the surface resistance and surface breakdown voltage of the insulation papers significantly. The results indicate that the conductive particle contaminations can play an important role for the electrical degradation of the insulation system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Liguo Yang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Florian Pauli
1
Shimin Zhang
2
Fabian Hambrecht
1
Kay Hameyer
1

  1. Institute of Electrical Machines (IEM), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
  2. Lubricant Division, TotalEnergies One Tech Solaize, France

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[1] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of paper, Title of periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).

example

[1] Steentjes S., von Pfingsten G., Hombitzer M., Hameyer K., Iron-loss model with consideration of minor loops applied to FE-simulations of electrical machines, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3945-3948 (2013).

[2] Idziak P., Computer Investigation of Diagnostic Signals in Dynamic Torque of Damaged Induction Motor, Electrical Review (in Polish), to be published.

[3] Cardwell W., Finite element analysis of transient electromagnetic-thermal phenomena in a squirrel cage motor, submitted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics.

Conference manuscript

[4] Author A., Title of conference paper, Unabbreviated Name of Conf., City of Conf., Country of Conf., pp. xxx-xxx (YEAR).

example

[4] Popescu M., Staton D.A., Thermal aspects in power traction motors with permanent magnets, Proceedings of XXIII Symposium Electromagnetic Phenomena in Nonlinear Circuits, Pilsen, Czech Republic, pp. 35-36 (2016).

Book, book chapter and manual

[5] Author1 A., Author2 A.B., Title of book, Name of the publisher (YEAR).

example

[5] Zienkiewicz O., Taylor R.L., Finite Element method, McGraw-Hill Book Company (2000).

Patent

[6] Author1 A., Author2 A., Title of patent, European Patent, EP xxx xxx (YEAR).

example

[6] Piech Z., Szelag W., Elevator brake with magneto-rheological fluid, European Patent, EP 2 197 774 B1 (2011).

Thesis

[7] Author A., Title of thesis, PhD Thesis, Department, University, City of Univ. (YEAR).

example

[7] Driesen J., Coupled electromagnetic-thermal problems in electrical energy transducers, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Applied Science, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (2000).

For on electronic forms

[8] Author A., Title of article, in Title of Conference, record as it appears on the copyright page], © [applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record] (copyright year), doi: [DOI number].

example

[8] Kubo M., Yamamoto Y., Kondo T., Rajashekara K., Zhu B., Zero-sequence current suppression for open-end winding induction motor drive with resonant controller,in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), © APEC (2016), doi: 10.1109/APEC.2016.7468259

Website

[9] http://www.aee.put.poznan.pl, accessed April 2010.

Proofs:

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