Humanities and Social Sciences

Prawo Morskie


Prawo Morskie | 2021 | No XLI

Authors and Affiliations

Dorota Pyć
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The article presents EU law perspective on current functional problems of agreements in the maritime transport sector. The high level of integration of the shipping market largest players significantly affects their trade relations with other participants of transport chains and with port terminal operators. The rapid digital transformation of transport and logistics is a new phenomenon facilitating co-operation between competitors on an unprecedented scale, but also posing serious risks. The big players adopting specific technological solutions force smaller contractors in logistics chain to use the same IT systems and software they chose. The authors discuss the impact of digital transformation and new technologies on the competition in the maritime transport. Such analysis is done in the light of comprehensive review of EU competition law in the context the super platforms data processing in a post-pandemic reality.
Go to article


Allen C.H., Determining the Legal Status of Unmanned Maritime Vehicles: Formalism vs Functionalism, Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce 2018, vol. 49, issue 4
Allison I., IBM and Maersk Struggle to Sign Partners to Shipping Blockchain, CoinDesk 26.10.2018 r.,
Antapassis A., Athanassiou L., Rosaeg E. (red.), Competition and regulation in shipping and shipping related industries, Leiden 2009
Bartlett M., Game of Drones: Unmanned Maritime Vehicles and the Law of the Sea, Auckland University Law Review 2018, vol. 24
Benduch D., Wpływ Internetu rzeczy na podnoszenie konkurencyjności przedsiębiorstw [w:] G. Szpor (red.) Internet rzeczy. Bezpieczeństwo w smart-city, Warszawa 2015
Biała Księga z 13.10.2004 r. dotycząca przeglądu rozporządzenia Nr 4056/86, COM (2004) 675 final BIMCO, The Guidelines on Cyber Security Onboard Ships, Version 4.
Bolero to provide electronic bill of lading as-a-service to R3 Corda based trade platforms in Latin America and Australia, Bolero News 22.10.2020,
Carlsen C., Tradelens is well on its way to integrate Maersk rivals on the platform, ShippingWatch, 10.9.2020,
Commission Staff Working Document. Evaluation of the Commission Regulation (EC) No 906/2009 of 28 September 2009 on the application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty to certain categories of agreements, decisions and concerted practices between liner shipping companies (consortia), SWD(2019) 412 final
Corruble Ph., Les alliances maritimes mondiales entre le zist et le zest, DMF 2018, Nr 807
Corruble Ph., Les alliances maritimes, filles de la mondialisation et d’une gestation par antitrust, DMF 2018, Nr 805
Corruble Ph., Les autorités de concurrence face aux alliances maritimes mondiales, DMF 2017, Nr 798, s. 13.
Corruble Ph., Prolongation du réglement d’exemption des consortiums: un tromp-l’oeil à l’heure de l’intégration et de la digitalisation du transport maritime, DMF z 2020, Nr 821
Crist P., Blockchain and Beyond: Encoding 21st Century Transport, OECD/ITF, Paryż 2018,
Czarnecki J., Prawne aspekty zastosowań technologii blockchain na rynkach finansowych, [w:] W. Rogowski (red.), Regulacje finansowe. FinTech – nowe instrumenty finansowe – resolution, Warszawa 2017
DCSA, Implementation Guide for Cyber Security on Vessels v1.0, 10.03.2020 r. (
De Filippi P., Wright A., Blockchain and the Law: The Rule of Code, Cambridge MA 2018
Decyzja Komisji COMP/M.7268 CSAV/HGV/Kühne Maritime/Hapag-Lloyd AG z 11.09.2014
Decyzja Komisji COMP/M.7908 CMA-CGM/NOL z 29.04.2016 r.
Decyzja Komisji COMP/M.8120 Hapag-Lloyd/UASC z 23.11.2016 r.
Decyzja Komisji COMP/M.8330 Maersk Line/HSDG z 10.04.2017 r.
Decyzja Komisji COMP/M.8472 Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha/Mitsui Osk Lines/ Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha/JV z 28.06.2017 r.
Decyzja Komisji COMP/M.8594 Cosco Shipping/Ooil z 5.12.2017 r.
Decyzja Komisji COMP/M.8742 - IBM/MAERSK/GTD JV z 23.03.2018 r.
Decyzja Komisji COMP/M.9221 CMA-CGM/CEVA z 06.02.2019 r.
Delebecque Ph., Droit maritime, Dalloz 2020 Dragun-Gertner M., Konosament elektroniczny a akredytywa dokumentowa, [w:] Europeizacja prawa prywatnego, t. 1, M. Pazdan, W. Popiołek, E. Rott-Pietrzyk, M. Szpunar (red.), Warszawa 2008
Fédi L, M. Tourneur, Les consortia et les alliances (géo)stratégiques face aux nouveaux enjeux du transport maritime conteneurisé, DMF 2015, Nr 769
Fédi L., Alliances stratégiques dans l’industrie des liners: les voies de réponses du droit de la concurrence européen et international, DMF 2019, Nr 816
Fédi L., L’abrogation des conférences maritimes dans l’Union Européenne: premiers bilans et perspectives d’évolution, DMF 2013, Nr 750
Fischer B., Prawne aspekty norm technicznych. Normalizacja jako wsparcie legislacji administracyjnej, Warszawa 2017
Fuerstenberg S., Solutions that can’t be hacked – Examples of real applications of blockchain that could change the world of transport and logistics (prezentacja) 2017,
Gawer A., Smicek N., Online platforms: Economic and societal effects, Bruksela 2021, s.18-61,
Goldby M., Electronic Documents in Maritime Trade: Law and Practice, Oxford 2013
Goldby M., Legislating to facilitate the use of electronic transferable records: A case study (Paper prepared for the UNCITRAL Colloquium on Electronic Commerce New York 14th to 16th February 2011)
Gonzales-Usach R. i in., Use Cases, Applications and Implementation Aspects for IoT Interoperability, [w:] O. Vermesan, J. Bacquet (red.), Next Generation Internet of Things. Distributed Intelligence at the Edge and Human Machine-to-Machine Cooperation, Delft-Gistrup 2018
Guidelines - Cyber Risk Management for Ports, ENISA, Ateny 2020
Heilig L., Lalla-Ruiz E., Voss S., Digital transformation in maritime ports: analysisand a game theoretic framework, Netnomics: Economic Research and Electronic Networking 2017,
International Transport Forum, The Impact of Alliances in Container Shipping, OECD 2018
Kirstein L., Information Sharing For Efficient Maritime Logistics, OECD/ITF Paryż 2018
Komunikat Komisji do Parlamentu Europejskiego, Rady, Europejskiego Komitetu Ekonomiczno-Społecznego i Komitetu Regionów, Platformy internetowe i jednolity rynek cyfrowy. Szanse i wyzwania dla Europy, COM(2016)288 final
Komunikat Komisji Europejskiej do Parlamentu Europejskiego, Rady Europejskiej, Rady, Europejskiego Komitetu Ekonomiczno-Społecznego i Komitetu Regionów, Nowa strategia przemysłowa dla Europy, COM(2020) 102 final z 10 marca 2020 r.
Komunikat Komisji Europejskiej do Parlamentu Europejskiego, Rady Europejskiej, Rady, Europejskiego Komitetu Ekonomiczno-Społecznego i Komitetu Regionów, Aktualizacja nowej strategii przemysłowej z 2020 r. –tworzenie silniejszego jednolitego rynku sprzyjającego odbudowie Europy {SWD(2021) 351 final} - {SWD(2021) 352 final} - {SWD(2021) 353 final} z 5 maja 2021 r.
Krasuski A., Chmura obliczeniowa. Prawne aspekty zastosowania, Warszawa 2018
Li R., On the Legal Status of Unmanned Ships, China Oceans Law Review 2019
Lista A., The application of the EU competition rules to the marine sector, w: Maritime Law, Y. Baatz (red.), Informa Law from Routledge 2020
Maritime Agenda 2025: The future of Germany as a maritime industry hub, Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy, Berlin 2017
Maritime Technology Challenges 2030: New Technologies And Opportunities, ECMAR, Bruksela 2018
Maritime Trend Report: Observations and perspectives on the future of the maritime industry by Danish Ship Finance and Rainmaking, Kopenhaga 2018
Mayer-Schoenberger V., Cukier K., Big data. Rewolucja, która zmieni nasze myślenie, pracę i życie, Warszawa 2014
Mayer-Schoenberger V., Ramge T., Reinventing Capitalism in the Age of Big Data, Londyn 2018
Monitor Deloitte. EU Shipping Competitiveness Study International benchmark analysis: Study commissioned by the European Community Shipowners’ Associations, luty 2017
MSC-FAL.1/Circ.3 on Guidelines on maritime cyber risk management, 5.07.2017
Munari F., Liner Shipping and Antitrust after the Repeal of Regulation 4056/86, Lloyd’s Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly 2009, No. 42
Nakamoto S., Re: Bitcoin P2P e-cash paper, 17.10.2008 r.
Nesterowicz M.A., Niekonkurencyjne morze. Zasady stosowania europejskiego prawa konkurencji w transporcie morskim, [w:] Prawo i ekonomia konkurencji. Wybrane zagadnienia, B. Kurcz (red.), Warszawa 2010
Nesterowicz M.A., Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska I, Wspólna Polityka Transportowa w żegludze morskiej, [w:] Polityki Unii Europejskiej: polityki sektorów infrastruktur-alnych. Aspekty prawne, Warszawa 2010
Nesterowicz M.A., Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska I, Wyłączenia porozumień żeglugowych, w: Wyłączenia grupowe spod zakazu porozumień ograniczających konkurencję we Wspólnocie Europejskiej i w Polsce, A. Jurkowska, T. Skoczny (red.), Warszawa 2008
Neuburger J., Choy W., Mollod J., Blockchain and Supply Chain Management, Practical Law 2018 [ID: w-017-3806],
OECD, Competition Policy in Liner Shipping. Final Report, 16.04.2002, DSTI/DOT (2002)2 (
OECD, Executive Summary of the Roundtable on Competition Issues in Liner Shipping, 27.11.2015, DAF/COMP/WP2/M(2015)1/ANN3 ( DAF/COMP/WP2/M(2015)1/ANN3/en/pdf)
Parker G., Van Alstyne M., Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy-and How to Make Them Work for You, Londyn-Nowy Jork 2016
Patrick, G., Bana A., Rule of Law Versus Rule of Code: A Blockchain-Driven Legal World, IBA Legal Policy & Research Unit Legal Paper, Londyn 2017
Polityka konkurencji wspierająca Zielony Ład. Zaproszenie do przedkładania uwag,
Port Cybersecurity - Good practices for cybersecurity in the maritime sector, ENISA, Ateny 2019
Pozdnakova A., Liner Shipping and EU Competition Law, Wolters Kluwer 2008
Pozdnakova A., New liner consortia block exemption: a legislative commentary, European Competition Law Review 2010, No. 31(10)
Premti A., Liner shipping: is there a way for more competition?, UNCTAD Discussion Papers 2016, No. 224,
Pritchett P.W., Ghost Ships: Why the Law Should Embrace Unmanned Vessel Technology, Tulane Maritime Law Journal 2015, vol. 40, issue 1
Pyć D., Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska I. (red.), Leksykon prawa morskiego. 100 podstawowych pojęć, Warszawa 2020
Review of Maritime Transport 2020, UNCTAD, Geneva 2020, UNCTAD/RMT/2020
Rezolucja IMO MSC.428(98) z 16 czerwca 2017 r. Zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem cyber-netycznym dla systemów zarządzania bezpieczeństwem, MSC 98/23/Add.1. Annex 10
Ringbom H., Legalizing Autonomous Ships, Ocean Yearbook 2020, vol. 34
Ringbom H., Regulating Autonomous Ships - Concepts, Challenges and Precedents, Ocean Development and International Law 2019, vol. 50, issue 2-3
Roukouni A., Port of Rotterdam: for Container Transport. Multi-Sided Platforms in Europe’s Logistics Sector (Case 4), RSM Erasmus University, Rotterdam 2020
Rozporządzenie Komisji (UE) 2020/436 z dnia 24 marca 2020 r. zmieniające rozporządzenie (WE) nr 906/2009 w odniesieniu do okresu jego stosowania, Dz.Urz. UE L 90 z 25.03.2020, s. 1
Rozporządzenie Komisji (WE) nr 773/2004 z dnia 7 kwietnia 2004 r. odnoszące się do prowadzenia przez Komisję postępowań zgodnie z art. 81 i art. 82 Traktatu WE, Dz.Urz. UE L 123 z 27.04.2004, s. 18
Rozporządzenie Komisji (WE) Nr 906/2009 w sprawie stosowania art. 81 ust. 3 Traktatu do określonych kategorii porozumień, decyzji i praktyk uzgodnionych pomiędzy przedsiębiorstwami żeglugi liniowej (konsorcja), Dz.Urz. UE L 256 z 2009 r., s. 31
Rozporządzenie Rady (EWG) Nr 4056/86 z 22.12.1986 r. ustanawiające szczegółowe zasady stosowania art. 85 i 86 Traktatu do transportu morskiego, Dz.Urz. WE L 378 z 1986 r., s. 4
Rozporządzenie Rady (WE) nr 1/2003 z dnia 16 grudnia 2002 r. w sprawie wprowadzenia w życie reguł konkurencji ustanowionych w art. 81 i 82 Traktatu, Dz.Urz. UE L 1 z 4.01.2003, s. 1
Rozporządzenie Rady (WE) nr 139/2004 z dnia 20 stycznia 2004 r. w sprawie kontroli koncentracji przedsiębiorstw, Dz. Urz. UE L 24, 29.01.2004, s. 1
Rozporządzenie Rady (WE) nr 1419/2006 z dnia 25 września 2006 r. uchylające rozporządzenie (EWG) nr 4056/86 określające szczegółowe zasady stosowania art. 85 i 86 Traktatu do transportu morskiego oraz zmieniające rozporządzenie (WE) nr 1/ 2003 w zakresie rozszerzenia jego zakresu na usługi kabotażu i międzynarodowe usługi trampowe, Dz. Urz. UE L 269, 28.09.2006, s. 1
Rozporządzenie Rady (WE) nr 246/2009 z dnia 26 lutego 2009 r. w sprawie stosowania art. 81 ust. 3 Traktatu do pewnych kategorii porozumień, decyzji i praktyk uzgodnionych pomiędzy kompaniami żeglugi liniowej (konsorcja), Dz. Urz. UE L 79, 25.03.2009, s. 1
Sawiczewska Z., Konferencje żeglugowe, Gdańsk 1986
Singh N., Real World Blockchain Use Cases – 46 Blockchain Applications, 101Block-chains,
Skoczny T., Miąsik D., Surdek M. (red.), Sprawa Microsoft - Studium przypadku - Prawo konkurencji na rynkach nowych technologii, Warszawa 2009
Śledziewska K, Włoch R., Gospodarka cyfrowa. Jak nowe technologie zmieniają świat, Warszawa 2020
Sułkowski Ł, Kaczorowska-Spychalska D., Internet of Things – W poszukiwaniu przewagi konkurencyjnej [w:] Ł. Sułkowski, D. Kaczorowska-Spychalska (red.) Internet of Things. Nowy paradygmat rynku, Warszawa 2018
Support study accompanying the evaluation of the Commission Notice on the definitione of relevant market for the purposes of Community competition law final report, European Union 2021,
Szafrański B., Interoperacyjność rejestrów publicznych, [w:] A. Gryszczyńska (red.), Rejestry publiczne: jawność i interoperacyjność, Warszawa 2016
Szostek D., Blockchain a prawo, Warszawa 2018
Tabela z planowanym harmonogramem przeglądów polityki łączenia przedsiębiorstw oraz przeciwdziałania praktykom ograniczającym konkurencję i nadużywaniu pozycji dominującej (2020-2024).
Tapscott D., Tapscott A., Blockchain Revolution, Londyn 2016
The International Port Community Systems Association (IPCSA): IPCSA Information Sheet: maj 2018,
Van de Voorde E., Vanelslander T., Puissance de marché et intégration horizontale et verticale des activités maritimes et portuaires, OECD 2009
Van Duin R. i in., Synchromodal Transport: From Theory To Practice. Case study Port of Rotterdam: Identifying the success/fail factors - The 98th Annual Meeting Transportation Research Board, Waszyngton 2019, dostępny w serwisie Reasearch-Gate:
Van Hooydonk E., The law of unmanned merchant shipping - an exploration, The Journal of International Maritime Law 2014, vol. 20
Van Riessen B., Negenborn R., Dekker R., Synchromodal Container Transportation: An Overview of Current Topics and Research Opportunities, [w:] F. Corman, S. Voss, R. Negenborn (red.) Computational Logistics. ICCL 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9335, Springer 2015,
Veal R., The Legal Status and Operation of Unmanned Maritime Vehicles, Ocean Development and International Law 2019, vol. 50
Veal R., Tsimplis M., The integration of unmanned ships into the lex maritima, Lloyd’s Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly 2017
Vermesan O., Bacquet J., Next Generation Internet of Things: Distributed Intelligence at the Edge and Human Machine-to-Machine Cooperstion, Gisturp-Delft 2018
Vigna P., Casey M., Cryptocurrency: Future of the Money? Londyn 2016
Weber R.H., Weber R., Internet of Things: Legal Perspectives, Berlin-Heidelberg 2010
Werbach K., The Blockchain and the New Architecture of Trust, Cambridge MA 2018
Werner M. J., Application of EU Competition Rules to Maritime Sector, [w:] EU Maritime Transport Law, H. Jessen, M. J. Werner (red.), C.H. Beck, 2016
Wierczyński G., Wiewiórowski W., Informatyka prawnicza. Nowoczesne technologie informacyjne w pracy prawników i administracji publicznej, Warszawa 2016
Wiewiórowski W., Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska I., Konosament a blockchain. Możliwości wykorzystania technologii rozproszonego rejestru dla celów „elektronicznego indosu” przy przenoszeniu praw z papierów wartościowych na zlecenie, [w:] K. Flaga--Gieruszyńska, J. Gołaczyński, D. Szostek (red.) Sztuczna inteligencja, blockchain, cyberbezpieczeństwo oraz dane osobowe. Zagadnienia wybrane, Warszawa 2019
Wiewiórowski W., Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska I., Proces przetwarzania danych z dokumentów elektronicznych w systemach teleinformatycznych e-Maritime, Prawo Morskie 2014, t. XXX
Wytyczne w sprawie stosowania art. 81 Traktatu WE do sektora usług transportu morskiego, Dz.Urz. UE C 245 z 26.09.2008 r.
Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska I, Konferencje żeglugowe w dobie przemian wspólnotowego prawa konkurencji, Prawo Morskie 2007, t. XXIII

Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Iwona Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska
Wojciech Wiewiórowski

  1. Katedra Prawa Morskiego, Wydział Prawa i Administracji Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk
  2. Katedra Informatyki Prawniczej, Wydział Prawa i Administracji Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The Hong Kong Convention is an international attempt to regulate the scrapping of seagoing ships. It aims to ensure that ships recycled at the end of their lives do not pose unnecessary risks to health, safety and the environment. It aims to address all problems associated with ship recycling, including the fact that ships sold for scrap may contain environmentally hazardous substances such as asbestos, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, ozone-depleting substances and others. The Convention provisions also aim to improve working and environmental conditions at many ship recycling sites around the world. The second part of this article on the scrapping of seagoing ships is a translation into Polish of the English text of the Convention adopted in May 2009 by the International Conference on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.
Go to article


Ahmed I., Towards a Safe and Sustainable Industry of Ship Breaking: International Initiatives and South Asian Response, Journal of Maritime Law&Commerce, vol. 51, nNo. 3, July, 2020, s. 226; [dostęp 1.09.2021 r.]
Contradiction in Term: European Union must align its waste ship exports with international law and green deal, September 2020, s. 3; [dostęp 1.09.2021 r.]
Gopal M., Beached Waste and Wasted Beaches: A Critical Analysis of the New Ship Recycling Law in India; [do-stęp 1.09.2021 r.]
Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009. [dostęp 1.09.2021 r.]
Mikelis N., Developments in Ship Recycling in 2019, The Maritime Executive; [dostęp 1.12.2020 r.]
Rozporządzenie Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady (UE) nr 1257/2013 z dnia 20 listo-pada 2013 r. w sprawie recyklingu statków oraz zmieniające rozporządzenie (WE) nr 1013/2006 i dyrektywę 2009/16/WE, Dz. Urz. UE L 330 z 10.12.2013, s. 1
UNCTAD, Review of Maritime Transport 2020, s. 45; [dostęp 1.09.2021 r.]
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Cezary Łuczywek

  1. Deputy Managing Director w przedsiębiorstwie zarządzającym statkami (ship manager) Green Management Gdynia
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The purpose of this publication is to briefly present selected issues, that have been the subject of the work of the International Maritime Publication in the last two years. For IMO this was a period when the organization had to face very serious consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. It influenced not only the fate of thousands seafarers in this industry, but also the functioning of the Organization itself, forcing to adopt innovative and unprecedented solutions. Their effects are still clearly felt and have an impact on the current as well as future work. Authors would like to draw the attention, inter alia, on issues that have become pivotal in this difficult time and others that focus particularly on aspects related to seafarers’ rights, autonomous ships, fraudulent registration and fraudulent registries of ships, increasing safety in shipping, facilitating maritime trade and protection of maritime environment. Simultaneously, it is worth stressing out that the list of important issues presented in this paper is not exhaustive. The article also briefly presents the organizational structure of IMO.
Go to article


Lost-Siemińska D., Obowiązek stosowania najlepszej dostępnej technologii w ochronie środowiska morskiego, Prawo Morskie 2021, t. XL
Konwencja o pracy na morzu, Dz.U. z 2013 r. poz. 845 oraz z 2019 r. poz. 962
Konwencja o ułatwieniu międzynarodowego obrotu morskiego, Dz.U. z 1969 r. poz. 236, ze zm.
Międzynarodowa konwencja o bezpieczeństwie życia na morzu, Dz.U. z 2016 r. poz. 869
Międzynarodowa konwencja o odpowiedzialności cywilnej za szkody spowodowane zanieczyszczeniem olejami, Dz.U. z 2001 r. poz. 1527
Międzynarodowa konwencja o ograniczeniu odpowiedzialności za roszczenia morskie, Dz.U. z 1986 r. poz. 175, zmieniona Protokołem z 1996 r., Dz.U. z 2012 r. poz. 146
Międzynarodowa konwencja o zapobieganiu zanieczyszczaniu morza przez statki, Dz.U. z 2016 r. poz. 761
Pyć D., Ship Energy Efficiency Measures and Climate Protection, International Community Law Review, 2021, 23(2-3)
Pyć D., Międzynarodowa Organizacja Morska [w:] Leksykon prawa morskiego. 100 podstawowych pojęć, (red.) D. Pyć, I. Zużewicz-Wiewiórowska, C.H.Beck Warszawa 2020
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Aleksandra Lubowska
1 2
Karolina Sypion-Babś
3 4

  1. Zastępca Kierownika Ośrodka ds. IMO przy Polskim Rejestrze Statków S.A., Gdańsk
  2. Przewodnicząca Krajowej Sekcji Bezpieczeństwa na Morzu w Ośrodku ds. IMO, Gdańsk
  3. specjalista Ośrodka ds. IMO przy Polskim Rejestrze Statków S.A., Gdańsk
  4. Przewodnicząca Krajowej Sekcji Prawnej w Ośrodku ds. IMO, Gdańsk

Instructions for authors

Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) - Guidelines for authors of scientific texts

1. All scientific texts, including (but not limited to) research articles and judicial commentaries (glossa), must include distinct introduction and conclusion sections.

2. The title should be followed by the abstract and keywords. For texts that are not in English, the bibliography should be followed by the title of the text in English, the English keywords and an English abstract at the end.

3. Sources cited in the bibliography should be grouped by type: scholarly literature, legal acts, list of case law, Internet sources.

4. Text volume: min. 20,000 characters, max. 40,000 characters.

5. Page settings: standard margins in MS Word – top, bottom, right and left margins of 2.5 cm.

6. Main text: Times New Roman 12 pt. font, 1.5-line spacing, double-sided alignment. Eliminate any double spaces, commas, and periods, any multiple carriage returns, manually entered new lines, manually entered hyphenations, etc.

7. Paragraphs should begin in the same way in all articles.

8. Spacing between words: always a single space.

9. For the article title and sub-titles on all levels: the font size and type, positioning within the column of text, method of highlighting, numbering (if any), paragraph spacing above and below should be uniform across all articles in accordance with the journal/publication template. In collective works, subtitles of each level should be marked uniformly in all articles by the scientific editor submitting files for typesetting and breaking.

10. Keywords: the placement and form of the keywords in each article should comply with the journal/publication template.

11. Footnotes should be unified and inserted automatically using the MS Word function: "References" → "Insert footnote", without additional space. Please use automatic footnote numbering with superscript Arabic numerals. An exception to this rule is the asterisk (the “*” sign), which can be used in the case of information about the author of an article, in a collective work, or to distinguish between textual (source) and authorial footnotes in edited editions of historical documents.

12. In footnotes referring to sources previously cited, use the Latin abbreviations (op. cit., idem, ibidem, etc.).

13. In the file submitted, all places that will ultimately contain hyperlinks should be so marked – in particular, all ORCID numbers, DOI addresses, and E-MAIL addresses should be properly linked.

14. No space should precede the following characters: period, comma, semicolon, colon, closing parenthesis, closing quotation marks, footnote reference, percent sign, degrees sign.

15. No space should follow the following characters: opening parenthesis, opening quotation marks. In abbreviations such as: p. (page), vol. (volume), etc., there should always be a space after the period.

16. Slashes should not be used with the function of parentheses.

17. Texts in English should use “curly English quotation marks”. Texts in other languages should use the appropriate quotation marks for the language, e.g. Polish texts should use „Polish quotation marks”, French texts should use « French quotation marks », German texts should use „German quotation marks“ etc.

18. For English texts, please use “double curly quotation marks” as the first level, and ‘single curly quotation marks’ for quotations inside quotations. In Polish texts, please use: „these quotation marks” as the first level, followed by «these quotation marks» for quotations inside quotations, and lastly ‘these quotation marks’ for third-level embedded quotations.

19. Do not use a prime character (`) in place of an apostrophe (’).

20. For foreign-language text, please use the correct characters with diacritical marks (e.g. à, á, â, ã, ä).

21. In Polish texts, single-letter words such as a, w, or i that fall at the end of the line do not need to be manually moved to the next line of text – the professional typesetting software will determine their location in the typeset text.

22. Please use highlighting consistently throughout the work. Ordinary highlighting (e.g. the use of italics or underlining) does not require special character styles to be defined.

23. Dates should be written in a standardized form throughout a given work (e.g., 10.03.2021).

24. Numerical expressions indicating a range or approximate magnitude should be consistently separated by a dash throughout the publication (e.g., 1914-1918, 18th-19th century, pp. 5-8, 5-8 percent).

25. Neither a hyphen (-) or n-dash (–) should be used in place of the minus sign (−).

26. The bibliography should be standardized throughout the work according to the article/publication template.

27. Affiliations of individual article authors: standardized and placed in the source file according to the publication template standardized for all authors.

Additional materials attached to the transmitted text

1. All tables, figures, charts, graphs, diagrams, or illustrations should be placed in their intended position within the text, or submitted as a separate file together with a detailed description: article number, table/drawing number, etc., i.e.:
• drawings, charts, diagrams – should be drawn up and submitted as electronic source files in formats from MS Windows environment software (e.g. Word, Excel, Corel 11, Photoshop, etc.), as printouts, or as original drawings of good quality,
• photos – should be submitted as original photographs, digital camera files with the highest possible resolution (tif, jpg), or scans with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi,
• tables – should be placed in the text or a separate document (if there are many), do not use embellishments, background colors.

2. All supplementary materials should be accompanied by descriptions regarding their positioning within the column of text and base size, plus any framing guidelines, captions, titles, numbers. Figures and tables should be placed in the main text, close to the place where they are referenced, or on separate pages in numbered order, while indicating in the text the approximate location where they should appear. Please remember to make drawings according to the following guidelines:
• they must be legible and clear,
• their descriptions should be standardized and adapted to their size,
• drawings should not have a border or a shaded gray background,
• on graphs, drawings and diagrams, textual description should be simplified to the necessary minimum,
• all explanations should be placed in the caption, or in the legend under the figure,
• if possible, drawings, charts, and diagrams should be submitted in the original version as source files,
• all graphics supplied in raster formats (.jpg, .tif, .png) should be sized to achieve a base resolution of 300 dpi, as files with lower resolution will prevent proper printing.

3. Across all articles, a uniform separation of text and descriptions, uniform numbering of drawings, formulas and tables, and a uniform scale of drawings should be maintained.

Template of the article intended for publication in Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law)

Publication Ethics Policy

Principles of publication ethics

The editors of Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) strictly adhere to the principles of responsibility and ethics recommended by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) for all parties involved in the publication process and take all possible measures against any abuse.

1. Responsibilities of the editorial staff

1.1 Principle of impartiality and fairness. Submitted scientific texts are evaluated on the basis of content only, without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, citizenship or political ideology.

1.2 Publication decisions. The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should be published. The decision to accept or reject a scientific text for publication is made by the Editor-in-Chief based on reviews assessing its content, originality, novelty, clarity and relevance to the scope of the journal. In making decisions, the Editor-in-Chief may consult the Scientific Council. The Editor-in-Chief is obliged to comply with applicable laws on defamation, copyright infringement and plagiarism, and to bear full responsibility for decisions regarding the publication of scientific texts.

1.3 Principle of confidentiality. The Editor-in-Chief and the Scientific Council must ensure that all materials submitted for publication remain confidential at the review stage. They must not disclose any information about the submitted manuscript to anyone other than the authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisors (e.g., translators), and the publisher.

1.4 Disclosure and conflict of interest. Unpublished articles, excerpts from articles, or materials contained therein may not be used by the editorial staff for their own research without written permission from the authors.

1.5 Maintaining the integrity of the scientific output. The editorial staff will guard the integrity of the published academic output, by issuing corrections, additions and references as necessary. At the same time, the editors will make every effort to detect any inappropriate research or publications. Plagiarism and works based on false data are unacceptable. The Editor-in-Chief should take appropriate action when there are ethical objections with respect to a submitted paper or published article. In justified cases, the editorial staff may publish corrections, clarifications, appeals and apologies.

1.6 Withdrawal of published articles. The Editor-in-Chief of the journal will consider retracting a published scientific text: if there is evidence indicating that the research results presented in it are untrustworthy, if it has been previously published elsewhere without proper reference, permission or justification (cases of redundant publication), if the work constitutes an act of plagiarism or is based on unethical research. The published retraction notice should be linked to the retracted scientific text (naming the title and authors in the title of the retraction), clearly identify the text being retracted, and indicate who is retracting it. Retraction notices should always include a justification for the retraction, stating the reason, in order to distinguish an unintentional error from misconduct. Retracted scientific texts will not be removed from printed copies of the journal or from electronic archives, but their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible.

2. Responsibilities of authors

2.1 Standards for publishing research results. Authors of articles presenting the results of original research should provide an accurate description of the work that was performed and an objective discussion of its significance. Baseline data should be accurately presented in the article. The article should provide enough details and references to allow others to verify the claims made. Any fabrication or presentation of false or inaccurate research results constitutes unethical behavior and will result in the rejection of the manuscript or the retraction of the published article.

2.2 Originality and plagiarism. Authors should ensure that they have written fully original papers, and if they have made any use of the work and/or words of others, this must be clearly marked with a citation. Plagiarism is not acceptable.

2.3 Multiple or simultaneous publications. Authors should not publish a manuscript describing the same research in more than one journal. However, in exceptional and justified cases, the editorial staff of Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) will consider publishing a text that has already been published previous, provided that it was addressed to a different audience and in a different language.

2.4 Authorship. Works published in Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) must be published under the names of individuals who are indeed their authors and responsible for their content. Any persons whose participation in the creation of the submitted work is negligible (for example, limited to the provision of research materials) may be mentioned in the acknowledgments, but must not be listed among the authors. In case of doubt, the editorial staff may for further clarification regarding the individual contributions to the creation of the paper made by the individual persons listed as authors. The authors should also disclose, in a footnote or in the acknowledgments, information about individuals and institutions that contributed to the work through substantive, material or financial contributions. The corresponding author submitting a paper for publication should make sure that only the relevant co-authors are listed in the paper and that they have all seen and approved the final version of the paper and agreed to submit it for publication. Cases of scientific dishonesty will be documented and disclosed.

2.5 Attribution of sources. Authors should take care to properly label the results of other researchers’ work. In view of this, they should cite any and all publications from which they drew information or ideas when writing their own scientific text.

2.6 Significant errors in published works. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his own published work, it is his duty to immediately notify the editor or publisher of the journal and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the text.

3. Responsibilities of reviewers

3.1 Contribution to editorial decisions. Scientific reviews assist the editorial staff in making editorial decisions and provide assistance to authors in improving their scientific texts.

3.2 Timeliness. Any reviewer who feels incompetent to review a paper submitted to him, or who knows that timely completion of the review will be impossible, should notify the editor thereof and withdraw from the review process.

3.3 Confidentiality. Each entire manuscript received for review is treated as a confidential document. It must not be shown to or discussed with anyone except the individuals so authorized by the Editor-in-Chief.

3.4 Objectivity standards. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism targeted against the author(s) themselves is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly, by means of appropriate factual arguments.

3.5 Acknowledgment of sources. Any significant similarity between the reviewed work and any other published article or any duplication should be reported to the editor. Reviewers should identify any relevant published works that have not been duly cited by the authors.

3.6 Disclosure and conflict of interest. Information or ideas obtained through the review process must be treated as confidential and may not be used by the reviewer for personal gain. Reviewers should not undertake the evaluation of manuscripts which involve conflicts of interest arising from their own collaboration or other relationships with any author, private entities or institutions involved in the development of the scientific text. Authors have the right to address reviewer criticisms.

Peer-review Procedure

Review procedure:

1. All scientific texts, including research articles and judicial commentaries (glossa), submitted to the editors of Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) are subject to a double-blind peer-review procedure.

2. Each scientific text is evaluated by independent experts in the relevant specialty.

3. The editors will make every effort to select reviewers who have no professional or private relationship with any author of the text under review.

4. Reviewers are required to provide an objective assessment of the submitted scientific text.

5. Reviewers are obliged to disclose any and all discovered irregularities, in particular any kind of plagiarism or self-plagiarism.

6. The review must be submitted in writing and must include a clear evaluation of the submitted scientific text.

7. Reviewers are asked to evaluate whether a scientific text is eligible for publication. This evaluation is made based on the following criteria:
- novelty of the topic addressed;
- consideration of the most recent literature on the subject; the use of appropriate methodology;
- and the text’s impact on the current state of research in the field of maritime law, the law of the sea, marine environmental law, or sustainable development and the socioeconomic environment.

8. Scientific texts referred for review are treated as confidential materials.

9. The identity of reviewers remains anonymous throughout the procedure.

10. The authors are obliged to participate in the review process, in particular to accommodate or respond to the suggested corrections, and to remedy any and all error brought to light.

11. In each printed volume of Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) and on the website, the editors will publish a list of reviewers who collaborated with the journal in connection with a given volume.

Plagiarism Policy

The journal Prawo Morskie (Maritime Law) strictly adheres to the principles of scientific transparency and integrity.

We therefore will accept no forms of plagiarism, ghostwriting, or honorary authorship. In order to prevent such practices, relevant provisions have been included into the agreements signed with authors.

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more